Human nutrition

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Dietary recommendations / Nutritional requirements
If you are feeding a therapeutic kidney diet, this will often be done automatically - many of these diets increase the fat content rather than the carbohydrates in order to offset the reduced protein content. The Myths of Vegetarianism. Oils from the liver, such as cod liver oil, are not suitable because they contain too much Vitamin A and D. This is often discolored and depigmented. The grains feed intestinal bacteria and yeast which promote the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the colon. Top 5 therapeutic uses of Omega-3 fatty acids Chandler ML Clinician's Brief Feb pp states "the amount to supplement is somewhat empiric and depends on the amount in the diet. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are Merkel cells , keratinocytes , with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present.

Overall Requirements for Baccalaureate Degrees

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A minimum overall cumulative grade point average of C grade point average of 2. Students completing a minor must have a minimum overall cumulative grade point average of 2.

This must include a minimum of 12 credit hours of upper-level courses in the declared major program. Some program residency requirements exceed the University minimum. Courses taken at Old Dominion University as the host institution through the Virginia Tidewater Consortium do not count toward resident credit. The responsibility for meeting the requirements for a degree rests with the student. Students should consult with the department of their major for further information regarding the following.

Each undergraduate student shall select a major department or option at the appropriate time in his or her curriculum. In consultation with the head of his or her major department or a designee, such as the chief departmental advisor, the student shall select the courses for the major. At least 12 hours of upper-level course work in the declared major program must be taken at Old Dominion University in resident or extension study. All students must complete a writing intensive W course in the major at the upper-division level at Old Dominion University and earn a grade of C 2.

A student may not use courses in the discipline of his or her major to fulfill University General Education Requirements in the following Ways of Knowing areas: Students should note that credit toward a degree cannot be obtained for material of what is essentially the same course, but offered in various introductory courses for different audiences.

See the Undergraduate Writing Program Requirements section of this catalog for more information. The plan calls for the assessment of student learning at the beginning, during, and at the end of the college experience. Students will be notified about the requirement to complete the measures through their University email address.

All undergraduate students are required to participate in the assessment program. The University will make all reasonable efforts to assure that students have ample opportunities to complete the required assessments. However, certain precautions will be taken to ensure that students submit to the assessment measures and that they take the measures seriously.

Further information regarding sanctions procedures is available in offices of college deans and the University Assessment Office. All lower-level requirements within this program may be met by credit awarded to students who are able to demonstrate appropriate prior learning that fulfills the objectives of the particular Skills and Ways of Knowing requirements.

Though not all learning and experiences are worthy of being recognized with the reward of academic credit, the principle that supports the policy is that many valid learning experiences worthy of such credit do take place outside of the traditional classroom setting.

The General Education program at Old Dominion University represents the common core of the baccalaureate degree. It prepares students for pursuing a major, for broadening their views of life, and for understanding an increasingly global and diverse world.

It provides students with the basic skills and intellectual perspectives to engage in the search for knowledge. The General Education program develops analytical and critical thinking skills and the ability to make reasoned judgments.

Students will also discover that learning is a complex, multifaceted, and lifelong endeavor. Students may not use courses in the discipline of their declared major to fulfill University General Education Requirements in the following Ways of Knowing areas: Since the Skills and Ways of Knowing are needed for major courses and Upper-Division General Education, students should meet those requirements during their freshman and sophomore years.

Students who have received any of the following associate degrees from Richard Bland College or the Virginia Community College System have met all lower-division General Education requirements, except those specified as major or college requirements and requirements for completion of the undergraduate writing program: Associate of Arts A. Effective Fall , the A.

Students who have earned an Associate of Applied Science A. College-parallel programs at other community colleges or systems consistent with the requirements of degrees from the Virginia Community College System are also accepted as meeting lower-division General Education requirements and are reviewed by the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Students must earn a grade of C 2. Policies governing the transfer of General Education Requirements can be found in the Admissions section of this catalog.

See the transfer student website for the complete listing of articulation agreements at http: Completion of course work in the skills areas ensures that all students possess the basic tools with which to pursue their major interests. Students are advised to consult the department of their major program and the Undergraduate Writing Program Requirements section of this catalog. Students are advised to consult the department of their major program.

Majors approved to meet this requirement through major courses are: College of Arts and Letters — communication, music composition, music education, all theatre arts majors, world languages and cultures concentrations in French, German and Spanish, and world languages and cultures teacher preparation; College of Education and Professional Studies - human services, occupational and technical studies concentrations in industrial technology and training specialist; College of Health Sciences - medical technology, nursing, dental hygiene, health sciences health services administration major, health sciences public health major, and health sciences cytotechnology track; and College of Sciences - ocean and earth science.

For the appropriate course, the major program should be consulted. Some programs require more advanced level courses. Students should strive to complete the mathematics General Education requirement within their first 30 hours at Old Dominion University and are expected to have completed the requirement before the end of their first 60 hours at the University.

Students should be aware that waivers of the mathematics General Education requirement are not granted, and all students are required to complete this requirement before graduating. Students may meet the language and culture requirement by successfully completing the third level in one foreign language or the second level in each of two foreign languages in high school or by completing a single foreign language at the F or F level or equivalent work from another institution.

Students who have had some foreign language experience but are unable to be exempted from this requirement may complete just the F course in the case of Spanish or the F course in foreign languages if scores on the CEEB Foreign Language Achievement Test so indicate. The College of Arts and Letters and the Strome College of Business require foreign language proficiency at the fourth-semester level for students pursuing Bachelor of Arts degrees. Students whose native language is not English are exempt from taking a foreign language for General Education.

Students pursuing degrees that require proficiency beyond the level must be certified by the World Languages and Cultures Department to obtain a waiver of the level courses. American Sign Language courses taken in high school or transferred to Old Dominion University from another institution are accepted by Old Dominion University to meet General Education requirements in language and culture.

American Sign Language courses transferred from another institution are accepted to meet the foreign language requirement for B. Students may meet this requirement in the major and are advised to consult the department of their major program. College of Arts and Letters — African American and African Studies depending on elective choice, Asian Studies depending on elective choice, cybercrime depending on elective choice, geography, history, history teacher preparation, international studies depending on elective choice, and political science; College of Engineering and Technology - all majors; College of Health Sciences — dental hygiene and nursing; College of Sciences - biochemistry depending on course selection, chemistry depending on course selection, and chemistry with teaching licensure depending on course selection.

They also develop understanding of the various approaches to knowledge, the contributions various academic disciplines can make to solving specific problems, and the effective use of the English language. Courses in the Ways of Knowing also develop and reinforce written communication skills and include relevant insights into technology.

In addition, courses within each Way of Knowing focus on objectives unique to that way of knowing. The objective of this Way of Knowing is to enable students to learn about human behavior in changing contexts. The courses will address how ideological, scientific, and ethical judgments affect human behavior in Western and non-Western cultures.

They will also offer perspectives on the challenges, concerns, and contributions of diverse groups such as women and minorities. This Way of Knowing emphasizes artistic creative endeavor and appreciation and the history of the arts. The courses include field experience with the professional arts community in Hampton Roads as well as with the faculty of relevant departments.

The objectives are to foster an appreciation of aesthetic experiences, develop abilities to make reasoned aesthetic judgments and develop an understanding of diverse cultures. The objective of this Way of Knowing is to provide an understanding of historical analysis for non-history majors. This Way of Knowing emphasizes the contribution of literature to culture. Through critical reading and analysis, students will develop the ability to make effective use of the English language and informed aesthetic judgments about style and content.

Courses that meet the literature Way of Knowing are:. This Way of Knowing requires two semesters of natural science. A student may fulfill the requirement with two non-sequential natural science classes with labs unless a sequence is specifically required for the major. These courses introduce the disciplines and the methods of science and develop the abilities to make reasoned judgments based on scientific considerations.

Because of the many decisions students will be called upon to make in their personal and professional lives, they will need an appreciation and understanding of philosophical, religious, and ethical foundations to help them to make informed, intelligent choices. Further, as the pace of change and interdependency in the world accelerates, it is important that students be given an ample opportunity to critically examine philosophy and ethical values and to understand how philosophical and ethical issues affect decision-making in professional disciplines.

It is important for students to understand not only how a technology functions, but also how technology affects society. The impact of technology way of knowing can also be met by major requirements.

For General Education requirements that can be met through the major information literacy and research, impact of technology, oral communication, and philosophy and ethics , students who complete the required courses in their major that meet these requirements and then change to a major that does not meet the requirement through courses in the major will have met the requirement for the new major. All students are required to demonstrate written communication skills in the major by taking a Writing Intensive W course at the upper-division level.

All undergraduate students must complete their W course in the major 3 credits at Old Dominion University and earn a grade of C 2.

Students are required to complete Option A, B, C or D to meet the upper-division general education requirement. In addition to the completion of courses in the area of the major field, a candidate for a baccalaureate degree may select Option A, any University-approved minor, second degree or second major. The minor may be chosen to support the major, to offer greater job opportunities to the student on graduation, or to provide academic recognition of study in a second disciplinary area.

Students who complete the course requirements for the minor, but who do not attain a 2. Students whose requests are approved will meet the upper-division requirement, but they will not receive credit for the minor.

Bachelor of Science in Business Administration majors pursuing a minor or second major in the Strome College of Business other than Economics, Military Leadership minor only or Public Service minor only must also take six hours of level courses outside the College, or in economics, or in military leadership or in study abroad. Students majoring in Economics who pursue a minor or second major in the Strome College of Business fulfill upper-division general education requirements and do not need to take the six hours of level courses outside the College.

Three credit hours in the interdisciplinary minor may be in the major if a major course is listed as an option for the interdisciplinary minor.

As such, it will be credited toward both the major and the interdisciplinary minor. Course substitutions may be approved by the interdisciplinary minor coordinator. The intent of the Administrative Leadership and Ethics for Professional Roles interdisciplinary minor is to develop management-related skills.

An appreciation for the qualities of leadership, the functions of administration, and a sensitivity for ethical decision making will allow the student to apply for a wider variety of positions. This interdisciplinary minor is for students who would like to learn about processes encountered in biomedical engineering innovation and enhance their ability to integrate knowledge from different disciplines with principles used in biomedical engineering.

The minor offers an opportunity for students to be recognized for study in this growing multidisciplinary field and to enhance competitiveness for job opportunities upon graduation.

This interdisciplinary minor is focused on the exploration of child rights within and across diverse disciplines and in the U. The interdisciplinary minor in Conservation Leadership is offered in collaboration with the U. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS as part of a long-term, sustainable program of conservation-related service-learning, internships and leadership programs. The minor will facilitate the development of the next generation of professionals who can address conservation issues and challenges posed by a changing climate and sea level rise.

A unique aspect of this interdisciplinary minor is the requirement to take one course that is designated as a service-learning SL course in which the student will work at a USFWS or related facility. This interdisciplinary minor in cybersecurity is focused on the technological, structural, social, and legal frameworks used to secure computer networks and software.

The study of cybersecurity combines multiple fields including computer science, engineering, information technology, criminal justice, and philosophy, to name a few. In an effort to promote the security of computer networks, software, and cyber information, an interdisciplinary understanding about technological, legal, philosophical, and structural aspects of cyber crime is needed.

This minor will provide students from different majors the knowledge they need to prevent or respond to cyber incidents they are likely to encounter in their careers.

This interdisciplinary minor explores the interwoven historical, cultural, aesthetic, perceptual, and technical domains of the designed world. That virtually all aspects of the human-built world are designed is a generally accepted belief; however, it is not given the careful scrutiny it deserves.

Creative planning and critical analysis of design dynamics are emphasized within the context of these course offerings. Continuing environmental degradation is a worldwide problem threatening the quality of life and its viability. The problem can only be understood and addressed by drawing upon the resources of multidisciplinary approaches. The multidisciplinary perspective center of this minor focuses on the human dimensions of the human-environment equation and includes geographical and ecological approaches, scientific and technological methodologies, planning and public policy issues, and ethical, political, economic, and legal considerations.

The Health and Wellness interdisciplinary minor explores personal involvement in and commitment to health and wellness and the factors that influence the health status of individuals and society.

Melanin is produced within the skin in cells called melanocytes and it is the main determinant of the skin color of darker-skinned humans.

The skin color of people with light skin is determined mainly by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis and by the hemoglobin circulating in the veins of the dermis.

The red color underlying the skin becomes more visible, especially in the face, when, as consequence of physical exercise or the stimulation of the nervous system anger, fear , arterioles dilate. There are at least five different pigments that determine the color of the skin. There is a correlation between the geographic distribution of UV radiation UVR and the distribution of indigenous skin pigmentation around the world.

Areas that highlight higher amounts of UVR reflect darker-skinned populations, generally located nearer towards the equator. Areas that are far from the tropics and closer to the poles have lower concentration of UVR, which is reflected in lighter-skinned populations.

In the same population it has been observed that adult human females are considerably lighter in skin pigmentation than males. Females need more calcium during pregnancy and lactation , and vitamin D which is synthesized from sunlight helps in absorbing calcium.

For this reason it is thought that females may have evolved to have lighter skin in order to help their bodies absorb more calcium. The Fitzpatrick scale [22] [23] is a numerical classification schema for human skin color developed in as a way to classify the typical response of different types of skin to ultraviolet UV light:.

As skin ages, it becomes thinner and more easily damaged. Intensifying this effect is the decreasing ability of skin to heal itself as a person ages. Among other things, skin aging is noted by a decrease in volume and elasticity. There are many internal and external causes to skin aging. For example, aging skin receives less blood flow and lower glandular activity. A validated comprehensive grading scale has categorized the clinical findings of skin aging as laxity sagging , rhytids wrinkles , and the various facets of photoaging, including erythema redness , and telangiectasia , dyspigmentation brown discoloration , solar elastosis yellowing , keratoses abnormal growths and poor texture.

Cortisol causes degradation of collagen , [25] accelerating skin aging. Anti-aging supplements are used to treat skin aging. Photoaging has two main concerns: In younger skin, sun damage will heal faster since the cells in the epidermis have a faster turnover rate, while in the older population the skin becomes thinner and the epidermis turnover rate for cell repair is lower which may result in the dermis layer being damaged. The human skin is a rich environment for microbes. Most come from only four phyla: Propionibacteria and Staphylococci species were the main species in sebaceous areas.

There are three main ecological areas: In moist places on the body Corynebacteria together with Staphylococci dominate. In dry areas, there is a mixture of species but dominated by b- Proteobacteria and Flavobacteriales. Ecologically, sebaceous areas had greater species richness than moist and dry ones. The areas with least similarity between people in species were the spaces between fingers , the spaces between toes , axillae , and umbilical cord stump.

Most similarly were beside the nostril , nares inside the nostril , and on the back. Reflecting upon the diversity of the human skin researchers on the human skin microbiome have observed: The NIH has launched the Human Microbiome Project to characterize the human microbiota which includes that on the skin and the role of this microbiome in health and disease.

Microorganisms like Staphylococcus epidermidis colonize the skin surface. The density of skin flora depends on region of the skin. The disinfected skin surface gets recolonized from bacteria residing in the deeper areas of the hair follicle, gut and urogenital openings. Diseases of the skin include skin infections and skin neoplasms including skin cancer. Dermatology is the branch of medicine that deals with conditions of the skin. The skin supports its own ecosystems of microorganisms , including yeasts and bacteria, which cannot be removed by any amount of cleaning.

Estimates place the number of individual bacteria on the surface of one square inch 6. Oily surfaces, such as the face, may contain over million bacteria per square inch 6. Despite these vast quantities, all of the bacteria found on the skin's surface would fit into a volume the size of a pea. When the balance is disturbed, there may be an overgrowth and infection, such as when antibiotics kill microbes , resulting in an overgrowth of yeast. The skin is continuous with the inner epithelial lining of the body at the orifices, each of which supports its own complement of microbes.

Cosmetics should be used carefully on the skin because these may cause allergic reactions. Each season requires suitable clothing in order to facilitate the evaporation of the sweat. Sunlight, water and air play an important role in keeping the skin healthy. Oily skin is caused by over-active sebaceous glands, that produce a substance called sebum , a naturally healthy skin lubricant.

Oily skin is typified by shininess, blemishes and pimples. The negative aspect of the oily-skin type is that oily complexions are especially susceptible to clogged pores, blackheads , and buildup of dead skin cells on the surface of the skin. Human skin has a low permeability ; that is, most foreign substances are unable to penetrate and diffuse through the skin.

Skin's outermost layer, the stratum corneum, is an effective barrier to most inorganic nanosized particles. However, in some cases it is desirable to allow particles entry to the body through the skin.

Potential medical applications of such particle transfer has prompted developments in nanomedicine and biology to increase skin permeability. One application of transcutaneous particle delivery could be to locate and treat cancer. Nanomedical researchers seek to target the epidermis and other layers of active cell division where nanoparticles can interact directly with cells that have lost their growth-control mechanisms cancer cells.

Such direct interaction could be used to more accurately diagnose properties of specific tumors or to treat them by delivering drugs with cellular specificity. The permeability of skin relative to different shapes of nanoparticles has also been studied. Research has shown that spherical particles have a better ability to penetrate the skin compared to oblong ellipsoidal particles because spheres are symmetric in all three spatial dimensions.

Titanium oxide TiO2 , zinc oxide ZnO , and silver nanoparticles are ineffective in penetrating the skin past the stratum corneum. Because CdSe is toxic to living organisms, the particle must be covered in a surface group. An experiment comparing the permeability of quantum dots coated in polyethylene glycol PEG , PEG- amine , and carboxylic acid concluded the PEG and PEG-amine surface groups allowed for the greatest penetration of particles.

The carboxylic acid coated particles did not penetrate past the stratum corneum. Scientists previously believed that the skin was an effective barrier to inorganic particles. Damage from mechanical stressors was believed to be the only way to increase its permeability.

For example, ultraviolet radiation UVR has been used to slightly damage the surface of skin, causing a time-dependent defect allowing easier penetration of nanoparticles. When the TEWL reaches its highest value, the maximum density of nanoparticles is able to permeate the skin.

Studies confirm that UVR damaged skin significantly increases the permeability. However, the specific permeability of skin after UVR exposure relative to particles of different sizes and materials has not been determined. Other skin damaging methods used to increase nanoparticle penetration include tape stripping, skin abrasion , and chemical enhancement.

Tape stripping is the process in which tape is applied to skin then lifted to remove the top layer of skin. Skin abrasion is done by shaving the top micrometers off the surface of the skin.

Chemical enhancement is the process in which chemicals such as polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP , dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO , and oleic acid are applied to the surface of the skin to increase permeability. Electroporation is the application of short pulses of electric fields on skin and has proven to increase skin permeability. The pulses are high voltage and on the order of milliseconds when applied.

Charged molecules penetrate the skin more frequently than neutral molecules after the skin has been exposed to electric field pulses. Results have shown molecules on the order of micrometers to easily permeate electroporated skin. A large area of interest in nanomedicine is the transdermal patch because of the possibility of a painless application of therapeutic agents with very few side effects.

Transdermal patches have been limited to administer a small number of drugs, such as nicotine , because of the limitations in permeability of the skin. Development of techniques that increase skin permeability has led to more drugs that can be applied via transdermal patches and more options for patients.

Increasing the permeability of skin allows nanoparticles to penetrate and target cancer cells. Nanoparticles along with multi-modal imaging techniques have been used as a way to diagnose cancer non-invasively.

Skin with high permeability allowed quantum dots with an antibody attached to the surface for active targeting to successfully penetrate and identify cancerous tumors in mice. Tumor targeting is beneficial because the particles can be excited using fluorescence microscopy and emit light energy and heat that will destroy cancer cells. Sunblock and sunscreen are different important skin-care products though both offer full protection from the sun. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are two of the important ingredients in sunblock.

In order for sunscreen to be more effective it is necessary to consistently reapply and use one with a higher sun protection factor. Vitamin A , also known as retinoids , benefits the skin by normalizing keratinization , downregulating sebum production which contributes to acne , and reversing and treating photodamage, striae, and cellulite.

Vitamin D and analogs are used to downregulate the cutaneous immune system and epithelial proliferation while promoting differentiation. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that regulates collagen synthesis, forms barrier lipids, regenerates vitamin E, and provides photoprotection. Vitamin E is a membrane antioxidant that protects against oxidative damage and also provides protection against harmful UV rays. Several scientific studies confirmed that changes in baseline nutritional status affects skin condition.

The Mayo Clinic lists foods they state help the skin: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about skin in humans. For other animals, see skin. Epidermis , dermis , and subcutis , showing a hair follicle , gland , and sebaceous gland. Intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Retrieved 27 January Pig skin is structurally similar to human epidermal thickness and dermal-epidermal thickness ratios.

Pigs and humans have similar hair follicle and blood vessel patterns in the skin. Biochemically pigs contain dermal collagen and elastic content that is more similar to humans than other laboratory animals. Finally pigs have similar physical and molecular responses to various growth factors.

Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology. Your Body Is a Wonderland Human Biology and Health. Skin Digitally printed version ed. The Journal of Physiology.

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