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There are no indications of hafting , and some artifacts are far too large for that. Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could have been an effective weapon for defense against predators. Choppers and scrapers were likely used for skinning and butchering scavenged animals and sharp-ended sticks were often obtained for digging up edible roots.

Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster as early as , to 1. The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts c. However, this hypothesis is disputed within the anthropological community. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources.

Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic c. During the Upper Paleolithic , further inventions were made, such as the net c.

Archaeological evidence from the Dordogne region of France demonstrates that members of the European early Upper Paleolithic culture known as the Aurignacian used calendars c. This was a lunar calendar that was used to document the phases of the moon. Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the Neolithic. The social organization of the earliest Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic societies remains largely unknown to scientists, though Lower Paleolithic hominins such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are likely to have had more complex social structures than chimpanzee societies.

Similarly, scientists disagree whether Lower Paleolithic humans were largely monogamous or polygynous. Human societies from the Paleolithic to the early Neolithic farming tribes lived without states and organized governments. For most of the Lower Paleolithic, human societies were possibly more hierarchical than their Middle and Upper Paleolithic descendants, and probably were not grouped into bands , [50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the hominin Homo erectus may have begun living in small-scale possibly egalitarian bands similar to both Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies and modern hunter-gatherers.

Middle Paleolithic societies, unlike Lower Paleolithic and early Neolithic ones, consisted of bands that ranged from 20—30 or 25— members and were usually nomadic. Bands sometimes joined together into larger "macrobands" for activities such as acquiring mates and celebrations or where resources were abundant.

Much evidence exists that humans took part in long-distance trade between bands for rare commodities such as ochre , which was often used for religious purposes such as ritual [51] [52] and raw materials, as early as , years ago in Middle Paleolithic. Some sources claim that most Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies were possibly fundamentally egalitarian [3] [22] [38] [53] and may have rarely or never engaged in organized violence between groups i.

Like contemporary egalitarian hunter-gatherers such as the Mbuti pygmies, societies may have made decisions by communal consensus decision making rather than by appointing permanent rulers such as chiefs and monarchs. Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities.

Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. Kelly speculates that the relative peacefulness of Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies resulted from a low population density, cooperative relationships between groups such as reciprocal exchange of commodities and collaboration on hunting expeditions, and because the invention of projectile weapons such as throwing spears provided less incentive for war, because they increased the damage done to the attacker and decreased the relative amount of territory attackers could gain.

Anthropologists have typically assumed that in Paleolithic societies, women were responsible for gathering wild plants and firewood, and men were responsible for hunting and scavenging dead animals. Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals such as woolly mammoths and deer off cliffs.

Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia , may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period. Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G. They decorated themselves with beads and collected exotic stones for aesthetic, rather than utilitarian qualities.

Fallio interprets Lower and Middle Paleolithic marking on rocks at sites such as Bilzingsleben such as zigzagging lines as accounts or representations of altered states of consciousness [73] though some other scholars interpret them as either simple doodling or as the result of natural processes.

Upper Paleolithic humans produced works of art such as cave paintings, Venus figurines, animal carvings, and rock paintings. The earliest explanation, by the prehistorian Abbe Breuil , interpreted the paintings as a form of magic designed to ensure a successful hunt.

The anthropologist David Lewis-Williams has suggested that Paleolithic cave paintings were indications of shamanistic practices, because the paintings of half-human, half-animal paintings and the remoteness of the caves are reminiscent of modern hunter-gatherer shamanistic practices. Archaeologists and anthropologists have described the figurines as representations of goddesses , pornographic imagery, apotropaic amulets used for sympathetic magic, and even as self-portraits of women themselves.

Dale Guthrie [78] has studied not only the most artistic and publicized paintings, but also a variety of lower-quality art and figurines, and he identifies a wide range of skill and ages among the artists.

He also points out that the main themes in the paintings and other artifacts powerful beasts, risky hunting scenes and the over-sexual representation of women are to be expected in the fantasies of adolescent males during the Upper Paleolithic.

The "Venus" figurines have been theorized, not universally, as representing a mother goddess ; the abundance of such female imagery has inspired the theory that Paleolithic and later Neolithic societies centered their religion and societies around women. Dale Gutrie's hypothesis that served as "stone age pornography ". The origins of music during the Paleolithic are unknown. This early music would not have left an archaeological footprint.

Music may have developed from rhythmic sounds produced by daily chores, for example, cracking open nuts with stones. Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities. Bird and other animal species produce music such as calls to attract mates. Another explanation is that humans began to make music simply because it pleased them.

Upper Paleolithic and possibly Middle Paleolithic [83] humans used flute -like bone pipes as musical instruments, [38] [84] and music may have played a large role in the religious lives of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. As with modern hunter-gatherer societies, music may have been used in ritual or to help induce trances.

In particular, it appears that animal skin drums may have been used in religious events by Upper Paleolithic shamans, as shown by the remains of drum-like instruments from some Upper Paleolithic graves of shamans and the ethnographic record of contemporary hunter-gatherer shamanic and ritual practices. According to James B. Harrod humankind first developed religious and spiritual beliefs during the Middle Paleolithic or Upper Paleolithic.

Fallio, have recently proposed that religion and spirituality and art may have first arisen in Pre-Paleolithic chimpanzees [86] or Early Lower Paleolithic Oldowan societies. Middle Paleolithic humans' use of burials at sites such as Krapina , Croatia c. According to recent archaeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in Atapuerca , humans may have begun burying their dead much earlier, during the late Lower Paleolithic ; but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community.

Likewise, some scientists have proposed that Middle Paleolithic societies such as Neanderthal societies may also have practiced the earliest form of totemism or animal worship , in addition to their presumably religious burial of the dead.

In particular, Emil Bächler suggested based on archaeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves that a bear cult was widespread among Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals. The existence of anthropomorphic images and half-human, half-animal images in the Upper Paleolithic may further indicate that Upper Paleolithic humans were the first people to believe in a pantheon of gods or supernatural beings , [91] though such images may instead indicate shamanistic practices similar to those of contemporary tribal societies.

Fallio writes that ancestor cults first emerged in complex Upper Paleolithic societies. He argues that the elites of these societies like the elites of many more contemporary complex hunter-gatherers such as the Tlingit may have used special rituals and ancestor worship to solidify control over their societies, by convincing their subjects that they possess a link to the spirit world that also gives them control over the earthly realm.

Religion was possibly apotropaic ; specifically, it may have involved sympathetic magic. Paleolithic hunting and gathering people ate varying proportions of vegetables including tubers and roots , fruit, seeds including nuts and wild grass seeds and insects, meat, fish, and shellfish.

The Paleolithic was an extended period of time, during which multiple technological advances were made, many of which had impact on human dietary structure.

For example, humans probably did not possess the control of fire until the Middle Paleolithic, [99] or tools necessary to engage in extensive fishing. In addition, the Paleolithic involved a substantial geographical expansion of human populations. During the Lower Paleolithic, ancestors of modern humans are thought to have been constrained to Africa east of the Great Rift Valley.

During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic, humans greatly expanded their area of settlement, reaching ecosystems as diverse as New Guinea and Alaska , and adapting their diets to whatever local resources were available.

Another view is that until the Upper Paleolithic, humans were frugivores fruit eaters who supplemented their meals with carrion, eggs, and small prey such as baby birds and mussels , and only on rare occasions managed to kill and consume big game such as antelopes.

Anthropologists have diverse opinions about the proportions of plant and animal foods consumed. Just as with still existing hunters and gatherers, there were many varied "diets"—in different groups—and also varying through this vast amount of time.

Some paleolithic hunter-gatherers consumed a significant amount of meat and possibly obtained most of their food from hunting, [] while others are shown as a primarily plant-based diet, [62] Most, if not all, are believed to have been opportunistic omnivores. There's evidence of Paleolithic people killing and eating seals and elands as far as c. On the other hand, buffalo bones found in African caves from the same period are typically of very young or very old individuals, and there's no evidence that pigs, elephants, or rhinos were hunted by humans at the time.

Paleolithic peoples suffered less famine and malnutrition than the Neolithic farming tribes that followed them. Large-seeded legumes were part of the human diet long before the Neolithic Revolution , as evident from archaeobotanical finds from the Mousterian layers of Kebara Cave , in Israel. Upper Paleolithic cultures appear to have had significant knowledge about plants and herbs and may have, albeit very rarely, practiced rudimentary forms of horticulture.

In some instances at least the Tlingit , they developed social stratification , slavery , and complex social structures such as chiefdoms. A modern-day diet known as the Paleolithic diet exists, based on restricting consumption to the foods presumed to be available to anatomically modern humans prior to the advent of settled agriculture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mousterian — ka Aterian c. Life timeline and Nature timeline. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Between Nothing and Everything. Winfried; Hardt, Thorolf; Tatersall, Ian. Berlin; Heidelberg; New York: Science and Technology in World History: Global Ecology and Biogeography. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 22 August The Earth has been in an Ice House Climate for the last 30 million years. New Views on an Old Planet: A History of Global Change. Retrieved February 14, Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lifelines from Our Past: A New World History. A Global History from Prehistory to the Present. Ideas that changed the world. Journal of Archaeological Science. University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on Contributed by Richard B.

Hafting, projectiles and Mousterian hunting". The Nature of Paleolithic art. Origins and History of the Passions of War. Warless societies and the origin of war. University of Michigan Press, Lecture 8 Subsistence, Ecology and Food production. Retrieved February 13, The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New Developments in Consciousness Research. New York, United States: Sent email to customer support and I was told to think of it as not wasted but I received nutritional food with fiber Now I know why it only got one star.

Weight loss system worksstale product and no one to answer to except counselors with no control. I emailed three correspondences to FIVE different departments only to receive a notice that they don't reply to emails because they were too busy. I also included to them pictures of the moldy carrot cake, along with the packaging that states the date is still okay. The oatmeal is so stale it sticks to the side of the package and had to pour hot water in the bag to get the product out.

Chocolate covered pretzels are stale. We did call and the rep was very nice and stated that she couldn't do anything except replace our stale food. How many packages were bad? I honestly didn't count how many items I threw awayat their prices ANY wasted product is too many! Doesn't anyone there want to see a photo of the stale food? Does anyone there care? VERY poor about keeping the customer happy, however, are not timid about selling you the program.

Shame on you, Nutrisystem. We are sorry to hear about the spoiled and stale items you received. We will be reviewing your account and reaching out soon. I am not sure why in today's time of electronics that it takes so long to get the information. We are sorry to hear that it took you so long to receive the information you needed for the program.

We will be reaching out shortly. Pleased with the conversation with my counselor. I feel I have a better handle on what I should be doing. I am looking forward to losing the weight I have set my goal for. Thank you very much for your help. We are happy to hear that you feel like you understand the program better after speaking with one of our counselors. Please let us know if there is anything else we can do to help!

I wrote in with a few complaints about some of the food I received; some broken food, bags not sealed and crushed muffins. Allison was very helpful and courteous and was able to change my mood.

Thank you Allison for being pleasant and helpful. Thank you for the kind words! We will be sure to pass this compliment onto Allison. Keep up the excellent work on the program, Chris! I didn't know this when I originally call to cancel my account. Not that I like it, I understand that it was to be paid now. I was on hold for several minutes and when he finally came back he proceeded to tell me that his supervisor was at lunch and would called me back when she returned, "Oh and by the way here's your confirmation for your cancellation".

At that time I received an email from my PayPal account, advising me that I just made a payment to Nutrisystem. The man had the nerve to charge my account while he had me on hold. I have called every day, each rep has told me what he did was ok. This is so sad, that he could do this behind my back and it be ok.

My call is being reviewed now sure it is but, we all know how this is going to end. I will continue to call each day until I get a callback. He knew what he was doing was wrong, why else would he have to sneak and charge me. I want an apology and someone to tell me what he did was wrong! If I were Marie Osmond, I wouldn't want to be known as a spokesperson for a company that has such bad reviews.

BBB alone has 99 bad reviews and I am getting ready to add another. I guess that wasn't necessary to be said. We are sad to hear about the way you were treated when calling.

This is NOT okay. After the 3rd call to NutriSystem about a late order, Beth finally came online and made a return customer — yet again — out of me. We are so happy to hear that Beth was able to straighten things out for you.

We wish you continued success on and off the program. Rachel was very helpful in helping me to better understand my needs while on the plan and I am very thankful for her professionalism. So far I am enjoying being on Nutrisystem. All of the food does taste very good. The only negative thing is that when I first order they did not tell me that there was so much chocolate in the turbo box. I specifically requested no chocolate. Maybe training is advisable for people helping people to order food.

Thank you very much. We are so happy that Rachel was able to help you get started on the program. We are sorry that you received so much chocolate after requesting no chocolate.

We will be sure to pass this along for coaching. Best wishes as you continue on the program. I have been overcharged. Counselors at Nutrisystem keep telling me the issue has been addressed but I do not receive a refund. This is very upsetting and seems to me to be a bit fraudulent.

Please refund my money! We are sorry to hear the NuMi promotion fell off after placing the order. I have been on the Women's Uniquely Yours Program for 13 months, and have lost over 90 pounds. The frozen food is amazing, and I was never hungry or felt deprived. The delicious snacks and double chocolate muffins have kept me satisfied and I never felt deprived. Thank you for the kind words and keep up the awesome work! Canadian turkey bacon egg and cheese muffin missing cheese - Thank you for the response.

I did not to think to take a picture of the back with the information. If this occurs on the next I will. The cheese was missing on two of the sandwiches out of four on this order. I was trying to explain to the last counselor that I spoke to what was happening to me with eating the food and that it was making me sick.

This is not in regards to Kim in returns. Kim was helpful and very nice to me. Anyway, the last counselor I spoke to was so rude and talked over me and would not let me finish my sentence. It's really upsetting that I did not write her name down. It would be the counselor that I spoke to before I spoke to Kim. We are so sorry that you had such a poor experience. We will definitely be looking into this and reaching out soon.

I had a question about my food. Chat with your counselor. Very helpful but our chat was interrupted. I need to know how to continue after the first week. I am still confused on how to continue after the first week. Thank you for reaching out. We will be assigning this to a member of the Consumer Experience team to reach out and assist you.

The quality of food was pretty good with several options to choose from. Unfortunately when they were out of stock they substituted other food! Changing your plan such as delivery frequency was very difficult and why I left. Thank you for the feedback. We are sorry that you left for those reason. We will be reaching out to get further information. Have a good one! Over the last several months, I have tried over and over to resolve an ongoing problem with order fulfillment. Customer service refused to help and refused my repeated requests to escalate the issue and finally Nutrisystem decided to dump me.

Even in my last e-mail communication with Nutrisystem where I yet again outlined the problem, the reply back from Nutrisystem completely ignored the majority of what I wrote. It looks like if Nutrisystem doesn't say anything about the problem, then it magically doesn't exist somehow. This shows that Nutrisystem has drastically fallen in terms of focusing on customer needs and flat out refuses to deal ethically with the customer.

We sincerely apologize for your experience. We certainly do not want a long-time member to feel such a way. We will be investigating this and reaching out soon. I have had a couple questions for your people there and I emailed them for a answer. First reply was very fast, second was a bit slower but they explained to me the reason why.

I have been very satisfied with everything from Nutrisystem!!! Thank you for your patience and understanding.

We are happy to hear you got the answers you needed. We wish you the best of luck on the program! This is the 2nd time I've been on the NutriSystem plan. First time was a hit. Lost almost all my weight and kept it off for over a year. Just a little more weight to lose so I ordered again for 2 months. First shipment arrived on time and the food was terrific.

Second shipment has the frozen food arrive a couple days late. The 2nd shipment of non frozen food is still not here after being over a week, now almost a week and a half late. How am I to stay on the regiment with half the menu missing for over a week? My assistant called NS as she ordered for me and asked for help—reimbursement— compensation of some sort. The reply from Nutri system? I even referred you to my sister and brother in law— who both signed up.

We apologize that your 2nd order took longer than expected to get to you. We completely understand how this can throw someone off. We will be looking into this and reaching out. I sincerely appreciate all the help that Sheila offered. I won't hesitate to contact your Team Rep should I have other questions. See three emails I've previously sent. You don't honor your own company's policies. Food was extremely poorly packed, melted and opened packaging.

We are sorry that you had such a poor experience with us. We will be taking a look at your account and reaching out shortly. Customers can benefit from an online health tracking platform and individualized counseling from dieticians and weight loss coaches. Nutrisystem offers separate plans for men and women, with different options and price points customized to your weight loss goals.

With meals containing 12 grams or less of sugar, Nutrisystem takes the guesswork out of choosing optimal low-glycemic foods to stabilize blood sugar -- which could be good for people with any degree of insulin resistance. Any busy person who does not have time to prepare their own meals would benefit from having frozen and other pre-packaged meals and snacks delivered to their home.

Nutrisystem will ship all the food you need to your doorstep, with free shipping included. You can also find their products on QVC, at Costco and at several major grocers and mass retailers like Kroger and Walmart. Transition and maintenance plan: This program provides long-term fat loss success rather than just focusing on initial weight loss, which is important for those who need to establish lifelong healthy habits.

While all of the meals offered by Nutrisystem are designed to comply with the USDA's recommendations for a nutritious diet, those who want to stick to a vegetarian diet can especially benefit from Nutrisystem. You can avoid all animal products and still lose weight with Nutrisystem, with over 90 vegetarian options. Many people fail at diets because their bodies crave snacks to maintain their blood sugar levels throughout the day.

Because Nutrisystem allows 6 meals a day, you can avoid a dip in your blood sugar that could lead to cravings. By eating smaller portions, you can eat more frequently and still reach your weight loss goals. Join our community to stay up-to-date with the latest reviews, recall notices, and brand recommendations. To see why, sign up below! Be in the know Get trending consumer news and recalls.

Thanks Keep an eye on your inbox, the lastest consumer news is on it's way! This review is featured by Nutrisystem. March 11, An active athlete 21 years a collegiate soccer referee , 13 years ago I contacted Parkinson's Disease. March 12, Nutrisystem response. Hello Willis, Thank you so much for your review and sharing your story. March 9, Tomorrow is my last day on turbo take off.

March 11, Nutrisystem response. Hello Lori, Thank you so much for your review. We will be sure to let his supervisor know what a great job he did on your phone call. Hi Karen, Thanks so much for sharing your review with us today. Hope you have a great day! The Nutrisystem Consumer Experience Team. Page 1 Reviews 1 - Not sure how to choose?

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Let us know if you need any help! Hi Kari, We are sorry to hear that you are unable to eat our food and we apologize for the poor service you've received. We will be looking into this and reaching out soon -the Nutrisystem Consumer Experience Team. How do I know I can trust these reviews about Nutrisystem?

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