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The myth that no-till can mitigate global climate change. Il sistema degli indicatori per il monitoraggio del benessere animale Selezione e presentazione degli indicatori Il concetto di benessere animale ha subito negli anni una caratterizzazione sempre più accurata; da un primo approccio, in cui l attenzione era rivolta esclusivamente verso la condizione fisico-sanitaria degli animali allevati, il concetto si è esteso alla sfera mentale Rapporto Brambell, e successivamente al concetto di armonia tra animale ed ambiente esterno Hughes, Imediatamente após os ataques, o patriotismo se armou e vestiu roupas de luto. Statistical differences assessed by T-test. Plough tillage PT agronomic protocol included: Quindi, accanto all evidenza della produzione, venne suggerito lo studio del comportamento degli animali come indicatore di benessere. I primi possono anche essere definiti come Animal-based criteria e rappresentano i parametri rilevabili direttamente sugli animali; i secondi, definiti anche come Design criteria, rappresentano invece i parametri relativi all'ambiente di allevamento e al suo management Scipioni et al.
O Artigo V trata um ataque contra um Estado membro como um ataque contra todos e exige que tomem ações com base nos seus respectivos procedimentos constitucionais. Nós fecharemos acampamentos de terro r i s t a s, destruiremos planos terroristas e traremos os terroristas para a justiça. É fisicamente impossível defender-nos a todo momento em todos os locais Grande parte dessa 8.
Lieber é editor e autor colaborador de "Eagle Rules? Felizmente, ele estava errado. Ao atingir o World Trade Center, a Al-Qaeda tentou uma investida contra as instituições da democracia capitalista.
Importante economista de uma empresa de investimentos com sede em Chicago afirma que ela fracassou, defendendo que as instituições e a economia norte-americana recuperaram-se em grande parte dos ataques. Qualquer exame do impacto dos ataques de 11 de setembro sobre a economia norte-americana é dificultado por diversos eventos simultâneos. Noventa e nove por cento dos Apesar dos medos, a economia norte-americana aparentemente continua em bases sólidas. Existem três razões para a elasticidade da economia n o rte-americana.
Primeiramente, o Federal Reserv e reduziu as taxas de juros três vezes após os ataques, após baixar as taxas oito vezes nos oito meses anteriores. Existe desenvolvimento anormal, o que indica fort e crescimento potencial subjacente.
Bem antes de 11 de setembro, a economia dos Estados Unidos mostrava c l a ros sinais de fraqueza. Com tanto as taxas de juros reais quanto os impostos em níveis muito pesados, a economia estava propensa a passar por dificuldades. O presidente Bush p a t rocinou o mais oportuno corte de impostos da história, dando aos norte-americanos mais liberdade para gastar suas receitas. Os "shopping centers" e restaurantes em todo o país foram fechados por pelo menos 24 horas; edifícios comerciais de alto risco como o Sears Tower em Chicago foram evacuados; aviões aterrissaram; e o m e rcado de ações suspendeu o comércio por quatro dias c o n s e c u t i v o s.
Foi criado um grau de seguro que aumenta o custo de fazer negócios quanto mais próximos estiverem as companhias dos centros de poderio político e financeiro. Ao mesmo tempo, os custos de segurança também aumentaram expressivamente. Os fabricantes de automóveis instituíram financiamento a zero por cento e as vendas de carros aumentaram.
As vendas de automóveis caíram de 16,4 milhões de unidades em termos anuais em agosto de para 15,9 milhões de unidades em setembro, impulsionado pelo início dos incentivos no final do mês. Depois, em outubro, as vendas de automóveis subiram para 21,3 milhões de unidades em termos anuais, recorde de todos os tempos.
Outros varejistas também cortam preços e as perdas de setembro foram compensadas pelos ganhos de outubro. A economia re t o rnou à sua linha de tendência quase sem atraso, mas aquela tendência ainda era fraca.
Para surpresa de muitos, os consumidores ficaram firmes e, em vez de gastar dinheiro viajando, investiram em mais empreendimentos domésticos. No final de e início de , os cinemas atingiram recorde após recorde de bilheteria. Um dos maiores testes da resistência em tendências de pro d u t i v i d a d e subjacentes é o desempenho nessas tendências durante as viradas econômicas e choques externos à economia.
Uma onda de nova tecnologia caiu em cascata sobre todos os setores industriais da economia norte-americana. A produtividade é a arma secreta do capitalismo. A partir de um pequeno conjunto de colônias, os Estados Unidos tornaram-se a maior e mais produtiva economia do mundo. Embora existam muitos que acreditam que os Estados Unidos tenham atingido todo o seu potencial e podem estar entrando em um período de crescimento econômico inferior, isso, de forma alguma, é uma certeza.
Muitos p rofetizaram isso no passado e estavam errados. Antes dos ataques, os prêmios de seguro e estimativas de risco eram muito baixos. Embora os terroristas tenham assassinado grande quantidade de talentos financeiros nos seus atos malignos e covardes no dia 11 de setembro, as instituições norte-americanas e a vasta maioria dos seus talentos criativos permanecem intactos.
Osama bin Laden perdeu seu latim. O presidente Bush introduziu novas e significativas iniciativas de auxílio para o mundo em desenvolvimento nos meses que se seguiram ao ataque e afirmou todo o tempo: Pelant, como os incidentes t e rroristas re d i recionaram seu pensamento na Heifer Internacional? A Heifer Internacional também opera programas em outras nações em que a atividade terrorista vem sendo preocupante, notadamente a Indonésia e as Filipinas.
Diga-nos mais sobre suas operações nesses locais. Também trabalhamos d i retamente com diversas organizações muçulmanas diferentes que trabalham em partes muito pobres do país. Descreva-o de forma mais completa. Nosso programa nas Filipinas possui uma série de temas centrais. A melhoria do meio ambiente é um tema fundamental. Estamos também ajudando as pessoas a mover-se do setor marginalizado economicamente e de outras formas da sociedade para que se tornem membros produtivos da sociedade, ajudando as pessoas a tornarem suas comunidades mais vitais.
Fazemos isso em diversos tipos de parcerias, que incluem freqüentemente governos locais. Queremos unir o futuro da nossa empresa a soluções para algumas das questões de desenvolvimento que estamos enfrentando em todo o mundo.
Ao mesmo tempo, o apoio político para a assistência ao desenvolvimento foi consideravelmente reduzido no período pós-guerra Fria. Alguns dos principais líderes do Congresso observaram esse desperdício de fundos norte-americanos com ceticismo.
De que forma esses fatores acabaram por apoiar mudanças no fornecimento da assistência ao desenvolvimento e aumentar as preocupações sobre resultados e responsabilidade?
A Heifer e muitas outras organizações sem fins lucrativos concentraram seus esforços no impacto e responsabilidade por algum tempo. Nossa abordagem ao desenvolvimento é realmente abordagem com base em valores e trabalhamos de forma muito participativa com as comunidades locais, empresas, governos, etc.
Essas coisas sempre estiveram no centro de nossas preocupações. Por isso, este é certamente um momento em que o governo norteamericano poderia estabelecer papel de liderança mais firme na assistência ao desenvolvimento internacional do modelo que comprovou ser eficaz.
O governo dos Estados Unidos tem a o p o rtunidade tremenda de aumentar seu papel de liderança aqui. Carpenter, do ponto de vista corporativo, como o sr. Existe crescente reconhecimento da necessidade de um sistema de estabilidade e previsibilidade nos governos nacionais, governo que seja baseado em regras, sistema econômico que seja baseado em regras. Você mencionou nova ênfase na parceria.
George Carpenter 19 relacionamentos? Estamos todos em grande expectativa a esse respeito. Um exemplo da nossa experiência encontra-se na China. A Heifer, o governo local, empresas privadas locais e a comunidade uniram-se em uma parceria de quatro vias. Existem, portanto, muitas formas criativas de conduzir esse trabalho. Estamos apenas no início, tentando compreender como as parcerias podem ser reunidas para resolver algumas das questões que enfrentamos no mundo de hoje.
Tínhamos treinamento seletivo para mulheres exprofissionais. Isso nos permitiu atingir mulheres em residências que necessitavam de programas de assistência diferentes dos associados mais tradicionalmente com a Heifer: O que estes programas refletem sobre os valores norteamericanos?
A generosidade é muito disseminada e é uma característica maravilhosa do povo deste país. Estamos também encontrando doadores generosos e solícitos em Qual é o futuro desses esforços? Maiores informações podem ser obtidas no site: Deveremos começar a exigir carteiras nacionais de identidade?
Um segundo elemento é a maneira como os norteamericanos tomam decisões legais e políticas concretas. Os Tribunais, o Congresso e o presidente desempenham uma parte. A lei oferece ao governo diversos novos poderes para grampos telefônicos, rastreamento da atividade de computadores e monitoramento de transações financeiras, a fim de lidar com suspeitos terroristas e com os que os auxiliam. Um terc e i ro conjunto de questões re f e re-se aos julgamentos contra suspeitos terroristas.
O ataque contra um dos maiores edifícios de escritórios do mundo matou desses trabalhadores, outros foram seriamente feridos e 59 passageiros a bordo do vôo American Airlines 77 re c rutado à força morre r a m instantaneamente. Além da tragédia humana, subitamente mais de metros quadrados de espaço interno de escritório foram retirados de uso e trabalhadores com missões fundamentais de segurança nacional foram deslocados.
O sentido de urgência era claro, afirma Eaton: Alguns dos primeiros que re t o rn a r a m expressaram seu compreensível "tremor sobre retornar exatamente ao mesmo ponto", mas também a ansiedade sobre seu retorno a uma aparência de normalidade. Peter Murphy, conselheiro do comandante das Tropas da Marinha, estava entre os que reocuparam seus espaços em agosto.
As histórias daquelas escapadas difíceis também inspiraram novas funções de segurança para o espaço renovado. Il sistema Carta della Natura della regione Puglia www.
Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: Challenges in European landscape. Journal of Environmental Management In recent models, strip tillers and seed drills are combined in hybrid machines in order to allow seedbed preparation and sowing, and also fertilizer placement, in just one pass.
These machines are costly and should be amortized over a large acreage, for example by using them for all crops in a farm. However, wheat and other high density crops are normally sown in narrow-spaced rows e. On the other hand, maize and other low density crops are sown in widespaced rows e.
This stands also for no till planters. A solution to develop a hybrid machine to striptill and sow all crops can be to adjust row spacing i. This can be supposed not to affect crop performance for high density crops. As far as low-density crops are concerned, in a few, precision planting seems not questionable, such as in sugarbeet to obtain taproots with uniform size, whereas in many others, such as silage or grain crops, banded seed placement should not give relevant drawbacks or could even benefit crop performance, because the random placement of seeds within bands would help tend to plant equidistance, thus reducing intra-specific competition Robles et al.
This work is aimed at evaluating the performance of silage maize established by a hybrid strip tiller equipped with volumetric band seeder, as compared to the crop established by either a no-till precision planter or a strip tiller plus a precision planter.
In , two tillage-sowing treatments were compared in a randomized block design with 5 replicates: In , a third tillage-sowing treatment, was included: In , a randomized block design with 3 replicates was adopted.
In all treatments, the planned seed density was around 11 seeds m In both years each plot was 12 m wide i. In both years, actual sowing density was measured in two rows at different positions per plot. Plant height, stem diameter, total above-ground fresh and dry biomass yield were determined at harvest 27 August , 13 August by destructive plant samplings, and quality parameters i.
In , additional measurements to focus on plant growth evolution were carried out at early stem elongation and flowering by destructive plant samplings, but these data will not be reported in this abstract.
Results Both in and most differences between treatments were not significant. However differences in seed density were always not significant, due to the variability recorded between plots from 8 to 16 seeds m-2 across treatments and years , especially in ST-VBS.
This suggests that the volumetric seeding in a low density crop like maize may not guarantee a regular seed distribution. Measurements on individual plant growth carried out in at early stem elongation and flowering, indicate that individual plant growth was little affected by treatments, and the only noticeable evidence was a higher variability between plots in ST-VBS data not shown.
The lack of difference between the tillage systems confirms findings obtained either in the same Trevini et al. However, the additional ST-PLP treatment in allowed to separate the effect of tillage from that of sowing. Thus we can conclude that, in a seedbed prepared by strip tillage, the silage maize crop performed substantially the same with either volumetric band seeding or precision line planting.
Also differences between treatments in biomass composition and quality for silage were not statistically significant or not relevant anyway data not shown. Thus, the same hybrid machine could be used to strip-till and sow both silage maize and high density crops like winter cereals, with obvious economic benefits. Hybrid 6M, seminare a strisce. Strip tillage effect on seedbed tilt and maize production in Northern-Italy as case-study for the Southern Europe environment. Corn response, nitrogen uptake, and water use in strip tillage compared with no tillage and chisel plow.
However, the environmental and economic sustainability of this crop are strongly affected by agricultural practises such as soil tillage and nitrogen fertilization, generating interest in low input cropping practices that can reduce the environmental impact and the production cost and at the same time guarantee sustainable yield levels.
The experiment was conducted during and growing seasons. In both sites, a split-plot design with 4 replicates was used. The main plot was assigned to tillage, which consisted in conventional tillage P ploughing, 30 cm depth and minimum tillage MT 10 cm depth.
The sub-plot was assigned to N fertilisation, which consisted in three N fertilisation rates: Grain and straw N uptakes were calculated by multiplying dry yield and N content and their sum represented the above ground N uptake.
The following parameters were also calculated: The statistical analysis was performed with R software and the lme4 package. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. Site, soil tillage and nitrogen rate were considered fixed variables, while year was considered a random variable. Tukey's HSD post hoc test was used to reveal significant differences among treatments.
Results The influence of site, soil tillage and nitrogen rate was significant Figure 1. Nitrogen fertilization rates had a significant effect on total above ground dry yield: In addition, reducing N rate at kg ha-1 it seems possible to guarantee the same grain yield level reported by national statistics on agriculture for the two study sites. However, long-term study to monitor the effect of low N rate on soil fertility could be necessary. Concerning N uptakes, only N rate significantly affected this parameter.
In fact, total uptakes were proportional to yield values with significant differences also between N1 and N2 70 vs 91 kg N ha A negative effect of high nitrogen rate on NUtE was recorded. It significantly decreased passing from N0 to N2. In the absence of nitrogen fertilization N0 NUtE was Conclusions Yields were affected by: Specifically, under low-input condition N1 , durum wheat achieved satisfactory yield level as in N2 kg N ha-1 with higher nitrogen efficiency.
Then, we can suppose that the optimization of durum wheat cropping systems by reducing crop inputs can represent a way to match the demand for a sustainable agriculture at low energy inputs. However, further investigations should continue to analyse other aspects such as nitrate leaching, N2O emissions and economic aspects.
References Bosco et al. Ital J Agr, 10 3: The effect of tillage system on residue management on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat in a cool Atlantic climate. Efficiency of nitrogen in wheat under Mediterranean conditions: Agron, available on line. Tremblay A, Ransijn J. R package version 2. With the development of urbanization and industrialization, soils were increasingly polluted by heavy metals HM threatening ecosystems, surface and ground waters, food safety and human health.
Phytoremediation can be potentially used for the risk managements, phytostabilization and remediation of HM-contaminated sites. A major step towards the development of phytoremediation of HM-impacted soils is the identification of HM hyperaccumulating and high tolerant plants.
This study aimed at evaluating the potential of native plant species to extract and accumulate heavy metals from a soil of a battery recycling site Marcianise, Campania Region, Italy polluted by Pb andCd. Within each plot, tissues shoots and roots of spontaneous plants species with the higher soil coverage were collected together with rhizo soil from the cm depth soil layer.
For metals not included in the current legislation mean values found in grasses grown on polluted sites were used Kabata-Pendias, as reference. The following indices were tested to assess the ability of the plants to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals for phytoextraction and phytostabilization purpose Yoon et al. In heavily contaminated plotswe comparedHM concentration values in shoots withreference values given by Van der Ent et al. Thirteen species were found as representative of the investigated plots; they are listed in Table 1, together with the label code.
Lead and Cd content in plant tissues and soil are also reported. Soil Pb concentration ranged from to over mg kg-1 and was above legal threshold for commercial and industrial sites mg kg-1 in all cases except for Plot1, P2ET and Plot Lead content of shoots was above legal threshold for all species with the exception of AV and ET.
Total Pb concentrations in the plant roots ranged from 16 mg kg-1 to mg kg-1 in P7SL. TF was higher than 1 for P1AV 1. Soil Cd concentration ranged from 0. Cadmium concentration in shoots ranged from 0. Cadmium concentration in roots ranged from 0. Among other elements, Tl concentration in shoots was lower than values found in species growing in contaminated soils 2.
TF was lower than 1 for all species except for P7SL 2. Plot 1 - Dittrichia viscosa P1DV 47,05 16,55 ,30 0,83 0,33 2,50 0,06 0,41 n. Plot 2 - Epilobium tetragonum P2ET 31,63 ,92 ,10 0,17 1,76 2,10 0,03 0,21 n. Plot 2 - S orghum halepense P2S H 73,98 76,42 ,80 1,03 2,20 81,70 0,22 0,34 n. Plot 3 - S ambucus ebulus P3S E 95,78 ,15 ,00 0,20 7,01 19,30 0,13 1,13 n. Plot 4 - Cirsium arvense P4CA ,07 ,18 ,20 3,80 7,65 21,90 0,19 0,57 n.
Plot 5 - Artemisia annua P5AA ,24 ,78 ,60 9,39 8,51 4,90 0,14 0,60 n. Plot 5 - Holcus lanatus P5HL 70,41 ,62 ,10 1,27 4,91 5,80 0,11 0,45 n. Plot 6 - Rubus ulmifolius P6RU 66,67 ,69 ,00 0,17 4,21 ,60 0,02 0,34 n. Plot 7 - Elymus repens P7ER ,05 n. Plot 7 - S ilene latifolia P7S L ,98 ,94 ,50 7,70 41,16 ,60 ,54 43,99 n.
Plot 8 - Ballota nigra P8BN ,57 ,09 ,70 5,94 19,98 55,00 1,68 4,06 n. Plot 8 - Elymus repens P8ER ,25 ,38 ,50 9,51 40,14 ,30 1,78 3,32 n. Plot 9 - Elymus repens P9ER ,77 ,54 ,70 0,85 12,33 30,60 0,09 0,35 n. Plot 10 - Rubus ulmifolius P10RU ,99 ,91 ,00 3,85 3,03 ,20 0,44 0,82 n. Plot 11 - S ambucus ebulus P11S E 37,14 27,33 ,40 0,33 0,36 0,60 0,03 0,20 n. Average ,09 ,82 ,21 3,24 11,16 61,23 6,07 3,47 n.
Maximum ,05 ,94 ,00 9,51 41,16 ,60 ,54 43,99 n. Concentrations of Pb and Cd of spontaneous plants and soils from a polluted battery recycling site. All the screened plant species exhibiteda good adaptability to Pb and Cd contaminated soil. Two plant species were suspected as metal hyperaccumulators: Artemisia annua for Cd and Silene latifolia for Tl. TF higher than 1 was already reported for the Artemisia genus by Baek et al.
Further experiments in controlled environment with soil highly polluted by Cd are needed to confirm this hypothesis. So, according to Escarrè et al. Implications for Soil Restoration. Water Air Soil Pollut Trace elements in soils and plants. Distribution and metal-accumulating behaviour of Thlaspicaerulescens and associated metallophytes in France. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site.
Agriculture, Food and Environment, Univ. On the other hand, soil degradation processes erosion, salinization, desertification, contamination, etc. This means that urbanization is still expanding and lowland areas close to cities and with the most fertile soils are converted gradually to urban neighborhoods, shopping centers, industrial areas, and infrastructures.
The issue of land protection from degradation is getting increasing attention in the policy agenda, both globally and at the European level. So far, this document is still missing. In order to achieve the UN goal on land degradation neutrality, two relevant conditions should be met: This presentation is focused specifically on the second option: Objective In many industrial activities, from house building to road construction, from mining to quarry cultivations, etc.
When construction works are completed or the project is over, operating companies should reclaim the disturbed land, returning it to conditions that enable its use for other purposes, such as farmland or semi-natural habitat.
Soil-forming materials from overburden, properly selected, cleaned and physically separated, could be used also in the manufacturing of plant growing media to be used in nursery, gardening, and protected horticulture and greenhouse cultivations. It must be emphasised, indeed, that without a suitable, coherent and viable legal support regulatory system and the consequent authorization procedures , nothing of what is technically possible is actually feasible.
Synoptic diagram of the different options in the waste art. C Under specific conditions art. This happen when a further use is certain, lawful, healthy, environmentally sound, without extra processing other than normal industrial practices art. Reutilization site is to be known in advance. The European Commission should set such criteria for each specific category of materials.
Soil-waste is not included so far. E Waste recovery art. Considering soil-waste, the recovery typology is R5: Conclusions Notwithstanding the significant improvements in the EU legislation framework, the national regulatory system is still in progress and addressing its interpretation is difficult; therefore, fulfil the permitting procedures is complex and several constraints should be loosened.
At regulatory level, a proper trade-off between a too broad and a too narrow definition of waste still needs to be found. Soil-waste represents a typical example: By contrast, a too narrow interpretation could lead to serious environmental damage.
Be simple in rules but faultless in the control through serious traceability tools should be the best way to follow. Like other Lamiaceae, its seeds exhibit myxospermy: The role of chia mucilage on the stability of soil was studied in this research through the determination of aggregate stability in analogy with other plant hydrogels Morel et al.
The composition of mucilage was also investigated in order to clarify the mechanisms of soil stabilization. Methods Mucilage was extracted from black chia seeds obtained from Eichenhain www. A factorial design with three replications was tested: Concentration of mucilage with three levels: Soil texture with three levels: At 1, 7 and 30 days aggregates were saturated under vacuum and stability was determined through wet sieving on a stack of sieves 0.
The dimensional distribution and the stability of aggregates percent in dry weight of aggregates collected on the 1 mm sieve, Traoré et al. Soil respiration was measured as CO2 emission after incubation with 0. The effect was stronger in the sandy loam texture and less pronounced in the clay loam soil.
It persisted until the end of the incubation period. The percentage of aggregates collected in sieves with opening smaller than 1 mm, conversely, were higher in control treatments. Nevertheless about half of the organic carbon added with the mucilage was left in the soil at the end of the day incubation period. Polysaccharides and uronic groups were found in the mucilage. Percentage dry weight of soil aggregates retained on sieves after wet-sieving at different times of incubation.
Conclusions The mucilage extracted from chia seeds, exerts a significant increase of soil aggregate stability, which persists in time in spite of increases in soil respiration. Mechanisms of soil bonding analogous to xanthan and linked to the presence of charged groups can be inferred from 13C-CPMAS. Our results open new perspectives to the interpretation of the ecological services of myxospermous crop seeds for surface soil stability.
Influence of maize root mucilage on soil aggregate stability. Plant and Soil, , Effect of root mucilage and modelled root exudates on soil structure. European Journal of Soil Science, 51, New EU regulations promoting sustainable agricultural inputs and the introduction of reduced tillage system, which could result in substantial energy savings Alhajj Ali et al.
Soil management practices play a very important impact on soil quality by changing the soil organic carbon SOC concentration with a subsequent effect on the GHG emissions from the soil. The importance of SOC and the ability of agricultural soil to sequester carbon, as a climate-change-mitigating strategy, has received great attention worldwide in relation to soil management.
In fact, agricultural soils can be considered as a net sink or source for greenhouse gases GHGs depending on many factors including soil management practices, cropping systems and weather conditions. If proper management is applied Alhajj Ali et al. Conservative tillage systems studies reported to give benefit to both the soil structure and the organic matter content especially in arid and semi-arid climates where the stability of aggregates and soil structure improved under conservative soil management techniques.
This study evaluates the effects of different soil tillage techniques on the physical properties of soil in a typical Mediterranean area of southern Italy. The aim of presentstudy is to determine the effect of tillage system, crop rotation, on SOC content in the 0- to cm profile of a 7 year experiment conducted under rainfed Mediterranean conditions in southern Italy.
On 9 ha surface are rotated durum wheat Triticum turgidum L. Iride and faba bean Viciafaba var. The main treatments, according a strip plot design, consisted of three levels of soil disturbance, as follows: In the last three years, the stability of soil aggregates to shaking in water was also measured, on triplicate samples with the method of Tiulin—Meyer modified as in Cavazza and Linsalata Results The results revealed that the organic carbon concentrations varied significantly as a function of year, soil depth and the system of soil management Fig 1.
During the years, the SOC concentration increase from 40 Atti del XLV Convegno della Società Italiana di Agronomia Sassari, Settembre an average of 11 g kg-1 of soil in the first years to 14,2 g kg-1 of soil in sixth year, , and significative difference between the years and data that progressively, year by year, increased. In , as expected, the SOC difference between the tillage system e values were not significative, considering the tillage system, with values that ranging between 11,6 to 12,4 g kg Considering the profile, the difference were significative only between deeper profile cm , 8,3 g kg-1, respect to the other three deep , , , cm , that show a mean of 13,1 g kg-1 and no differences between them.
In instead the values of SOC, in general, increased respect to The difference between the tillage system Figure 1 - Organic carbon concentration g kg Large differences instead were found between the profiles: The analysis of the structure stability under different treatments confirmed the influence of the soil management on the soil structure.
The higher value, in average, was found in CT tillage Comparing the three depths separately we found, in cm profile, impressive difference in NT system, were the value reached Conclusion The study clearly show the temporal effects of rotation and tillage on SOC content and distribution.
Compared with other treatments, in NT tillage SOC significantly increased in the upper profile, while on the other tillage the values were uniform along the layers. However, benefits associated with CT system on the physical property of the soil is clear, as showed from the soil structure stability and the productive response of cultivations during the years data unpublished.
Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen as affected by tillage and residue management under wheat—maize cropping system in the North China Plain. Contamination of heavy metals deriving from illegal waste disposal and dumping represents one of the most pressing threats to water and soil resources as well as human health.
Phytoremediation can be potentially used for risk managements and remediation of these metalcontaminated sites. This study aimed at evaluating the potential for phytoremediation of native plant species growing on a farmland contaminated by past disposal and dumping of tannery sludges.
Plant and soil samples were collected from a farmland, heavy contaminated by Zn and Crby tannery sludges dumping. The agricultural site is located in south Italy Giugliano — Campania Region. Within each plot, spontaneous plants species with the higher soil coveragewere collected and rhizo soil from the cm depth soil layer was sampled together with vegetation. A composite sample representative of plants shoots and roots and soil of each plot was analyzed for total HM content by acid digestion and ICP-MS.
For metals not included in the current legislation mean values recorded for grasses grown on normal soils KabataPendias, were used as reference. Bioaccumulation factor of roots BAFroots , calculated as the ratio of HM content of the roots to that in soil; translocation factors TF , which is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in the shoots to the roots; Bioaccumulation factor of shoots BAFshoots calculated as the ratio plant shoot concentration to soil concentration.
In heavily contaminated plots i. Selected properties of the collected plant and soil samplesare given in Table1. All plant species showed Zn shoot concentration above values given by Kabata-Pendias for unpolluted soils with maximum value found in P11CR1. Zn concentration in soil ranged from to mg kg-1 beyond limits of Italian legislation mg kg TF was higher than 1 for P6AR1 1. Cr concentration in shoots ranged from 1. All values were above those given by Kabata-Pendias in unpolluted soils.
TF was higher than 1 for P11CR1 3. Total content of Zn and Cr innative plants and soils from a farmland polluted by tannery sludges Conclusions: None of the screened plant species had hyperaccumulator characteristics, while all exhibited high adaptability to Zn and Cr contaminated soil.
The highest accumulation of Zn and Cr was observed in Cyperus rotundus showing Zn and Cr content in shoots 3 and 23 times higher than value found in grasses from unpolluted soils. High Cr accumulation was also observed in C. The high accumulation of Zn and Cr by C. Assessment of phytoremediation potential of native plants duringthe reclamation of an area affected by sewage sludge. Yoon J et al. Italy is one of the leader producer in the world of durum wheat Triticum durum Desf.
Basilicata is the third region in Italy for durum wheat production. In Basilicata, agricultural soils underwent continuous degradation during the last century due to the highly erodible nature of outcropping terrains and to the anthropic pressure favored by the introduction of CAP measures, which has led to the reclamation of scrub lands and badlands for durum wheat cultivation Capolongo et al.
This practice increased soil erosion, implying an enlargement of the surface area exposed to physical phenomena of erosion. An appropriate soil tillage and residues management could help to significantly reduce soil erosion by means of organic matter increasing and soil surface exposure reducing.
To assess typical long-term effects of soil management on soil fertility, the crop simulation models are tools that after the proper calibration and validation process Garofalo et al. In this research, CropSyst model Stockle et al. Methods CropSyst model was applied in the 6 main traditional production areas of Basilicata of durum wheat for a total of 15 soil profiles Lavello, Matera, Potenza, Val d'Agri, Vulture and medium basin of Agri-Sauro rivers.
In this model activity 13 years of continuous wheat in 6 different management scenarios were simulated: The evaluated output variables were biomass and grain yield, water used and percolated, soil organic carbon content SOC. Simulations covered a period over 13 years from to using daily climatic data recorded by 6 weather stations located less than 30 km far from the soils used in the simulation. Results Conventional management ensured the best crop performance kg ha-1 , comparable to the other treatments where the straw left on the soil was managed MNT and NOT and highest if compared to the reduced input tillage and straw removal Table 2.
Burning of straw CV caused a reduction of the soil organic carbon content kg ha-1 y-1 , whereas the other practices allowed an increase in the soil carbon stock, especially when straw was left on the soil and ranging from kg ha-1 y-1 in conservative management to 86 kg ha-1 y-1 in minimum tillage.
Crop management scenarios simulated by CropSyst model. Average values of durum wheat grain and biomass yield, percolated and used water and crop nitrogen uptaken 13 years simulated by CropSyst model in the six management scenarios. For scenarios abbreviations, see Table 1. Conclusions CropSyst model indicated an improvement in SOC under reduced and no tillage treatments, but the highest soil carbon stock enrichment was achieved when the straw was left on the soil.
This would require a supplementary amount of mineral nitrogen fertilizer at least in the short-middle term of transition from conventional to conservative regime to obtain comparable grain yield.
Spatial and temporal variations in soil erosion and deposition due to land-levelling in a semi-arid area of Basilicata Southern Italy. Durum wheat Triticum durum Desf. In rotation with the faba bean Vicia faba var minor L. A long-term simulation case-study. For this reason, agriculture land conservation is a high priority for Egypt.
Productive land resources in Egypt are under multiple natural and human pressure and are leading to soil degradation and desertification. The prevailing surface irrigation techniques, combined with the overuse of irrigation water, exerts pressure on the drainage system. This problem, combined with the dominant heavy textured alluvial soils of the old Nile Valley, lead to an increase of water logging and soil salinity.
The situation of irrigated areas is getting worse because the main source of irrigation comes from the River Nile that contains high concentrations of pollutants mostly residues of fertilizers and pesticides. Moreover the very rapid population growth is causing an expansion of urban areas in particular over the fertile agricultural land.
Urbanization is one of the most serious land degradation processes in the country. A Master on SLM will concretely handle the issues of agricultural land management, soil degradation and desertification, as well as population growth and related urbanization, thus helping to build thorough knowledge on these problems. Egypt signed the UN Convention to Combat Desertification in and took measures to restrict urban development and regulate irrigation systems.
However, despite these actions, the combination of farmland degradation and the increase of population are posing a significant threat to the domestic food production.
Several efforts have been undertaken by the government authorities of Egypt in order to reduce desertification processes and preserve land productivity. A Master on SLM could be integrated in these policy efforts, since it will specifically address the issue of desertification.
Though, these efforts face a wide range of obstacles, mostly related to the following constraints: It is now evident that new approaches have to be taken into account to overcome all the mentioned issues and achieve a more balanced approach on decision-making regarding sustainable land uses. Multidisciplinary knowledge, integrated analysis and complex problem solving skills are at the centre of all sustainable land management approaches, therefore multidisciplinarity has been defined as a priority at the Partner Country level.
ILHAM-EC aims to introduce a new Master on SLM in the curricula of the involved Egyptian universities and build a cooperative and international network in order to enhance technical, methodological and analytic skills of both teachers and students to increase their professionalism and allowing them to be able to face the complexity of land degradation and desertification processes.
Expected Results What is innovative about ILHAM-EC is that it makes use of technologies to improve the availability of digital resources to support teachers and students in the learning processes and in the development of critical and analytical skills.
In fact the educational modules implemented on the e-learning platform will be available also after the end of the project, thus increasing the possibility to train a larger number of people compared with a traditional classroom-based training. The didactic modules will be developed using different multimedia systems. Scribing converts concepts into a graphic format, translating the main ideas of a speech into keywords and graphics. This technique can also help to capture concepts that are sometimes lost and it can reinforce the memorisation of thoughts and ideas.
The use of these ITC didactic tools and the web 2. The educational game will oblige players to take decisions to solve complex and interdisciplinarily questions by relying on previously acquired knowledge. Through selected actions, players will progress in the game levels achieving the outcome of a sustainable land management and developing different types of skills and cognitive capacities.
The tools of the e-learning platforms, such as blogs, will be used also by the local HEIs, the partners of the consortium and other stakeholders to build an educational and cooperation network able to allow exchange knowledge and intensify collaboration. All the resources, available under the Creative Commons license 4. We expect that at European level, the ILHAM-EC will have a strong impact on the scientific community through the process of sharing knowledge across borders and access to shared problems, challenges and solutions.
The seeding sod seeding and minimum tillage are agricultural practices that involve minimal alteration of the soil; therefore part of all the practices and agricultural systems called Conservative Agriculture. The goal of Conservative Agriculture is to promote agricultural production by optimizing the use of resources and help reduce land degradation through the integrated management of land, water and biological resources, in association with the use of external inputs.
Agricultures classic plowing is replaced by surface plowing or not plowing sod seeding , which favor the natural mixing of the layers by the soil fauna earthworms , roots and other soil organisms, which, also contribute to the balance of nutrients in the soil.
Soil fertility nutrients and water is managed through soil covering, crop rotation, and the fight against weeds weeding. We presently have some experience of minimum tillage and sod seeding on two different productive situations in Sardinian agriculture, rice and thickening pastures with forage species; these crops are in our region, and are not among those which the conservation practices are taking over mainly cereal crops.
The aim is to highlight the benefits of conservative agriculture also on rice and forage culture, both in relation to soil conservation, for the productive and economic aspects of the farm. Methods The cultivation of rice finds in Sardinia the optimal production conditions in the coastal territory of the province of Oristano, an area of about ha. The soils are mainly derived from recent alluvial deposits of the river Tirso and rivers of its watershed.
To achieve the conservation tillage trial a rice field was chosen as representative for both the environmental aspects and agricultural practices. The minimum tillage was implemented to a depth not exceeding 0,10 m; where rice Long A — Carnaroli was later sown using a Gaspardo Model Diretta corsa of 3 m wide. This machine model has allowed to make a PK fertilization in the vicinity of the seed.
Afterwards an operation of weeding was carried out using a pre-emergency Pendimethalin based product. The sowing was done with kg ha-1 with a distance of 0,17 m apart. The area of approximately 1 ha was first cleaned using a brushcutter chain that has shredded the topsoil plants; then sowing with a Gaspardo Model Direttissima 2,50 m wide.
They used Trifolium subterraneum, Vicia sativa and Lolium italicum for a total of 40 kg ha It is observed that the plants sown with the sod seeding technique present the first internodes shortened, making the plant more resistant to lodging. Moreover, thanks to the weed control technique in pre-emergence, permitted by the sod seeding technique, there was a greater control of Echinochloa crus-galli.
The technique has allowed the farmer considerable savings of resources and time, as the cultivation operations are carried out in one step, instead of three steps, as required by traditional practices. The placement of the phosphate fertilizer near the seedlings, which took place in May marked by somewhat lower temperatures than the monthly average, favored a much faster growth than traditional seeds.
This allows greater rice growth compared to weed. Evidence of thickening with forage species has had a good result; the soil especially presented very limited erosion phenomena, unlike what takes place on slopes which are very susceptible to erosion, when not suitable tools and techniques are used. The particular drill disc has the advantage of leaving the stones on site that are on the surface and below the first centimeters of soil, rather than left on the ground, helping to protect it from erosion, avoiding the formation of rills in the soil.
Conclusions Farmers have found evidence of sod seeding on rice very suitable and feasible to local farms, also regarding the use of his own agricultural machinery.
In fact all the first cultivation operations can be performed with simple rubber wheels, by resorting to the more expensive toothed wheels only when the crop is at an advanced stage. The techniques used for the thickening with forage species favor the preservation of organic matter content in the soil and help to recover the land covered by Cistus monspeliensis, that are risk areas for summer fires.
References Paola Battilani et al. Difesa sostenibile delle colture. Principi, sistemi e tecnologie applicate alle produzioni agricole. To face this problem, habitat improvements are often required in order to recreate suitable environments to a particular species and to attract animals away from cultivated crops in specific periods. Offering degree programs in Filme für Unternehmen Messen und Events.
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