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Since you buy the ingredients for those recipes, then you know the source of the ingredients. While the Exchange System can seem a bit tricky at first, once you learn it, it's a tool for life. I am curious what research you used to come to this conclusion? Finally, the reviews about these three books will be relatively short. We see very few downsides to Weight Watchers.

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From its humble beginnings as a weekly weight-loss group for her friends, Weight Watchers quickly grew into one of the most sought-after diet plans in the world. Initially, Weight Watchers used an exchange system where foods were counted according to servings, similar to the diabetes exchange system.

In the 90s, it introduced a points-based system that assigned values to foods and drinks based on their fiber, fat and calorie contents. Weight Watchers has overhauled the points-based system several times over the years, most recently launching the SmartPoints system in SmartPoints assigns different point values to foods based on factors such as their calorie, fat, protein and sugar contents.

When beginning the program, each dieter is given a set amount of daily points based on personal data like their height, age, gender and weight-loss goals. Although no foods are off limits, dieters must stay below their set daily points to reach their desired weight. Healthier foods are lower in points than unhealthy foods like candy, chips and soda. For example, a calorie, glazed-yeast donut is 10 SmartPoints, while calories of yogurt topped with blueberries and granola is only 2 SmartPoints.

In , Weight Watchers revamped the SmartPoints program to make it more flexible and user-friendly. The new system, called WW Freestyle, is based on the SmartPoints system but includes over foods rated zero points. According to the Weight Watchers website, WW Freestyle makes life simpler for dieters because zero-point foods do not have to be weighed, measured or tracked, allowing more freedom when planning meals and snacks.

Zero-point foods include eggs, skinless chicken, fish, beans, tofu and non-fat plain yogurt, among many other high-protein, low-calorie foods. Now, foods that are higher in protein receive a lower point value, while foods that are higher in sugar and saturated fat receive higher point values. Members can pay more for in-person group meetings or one-on-one support from a Weight Watchers personal coach. Members also receive access to an online database of thousands of foods and recipes, in addition to a tracking app for logging SmartPoints.

In addition, Weight Watchers encourages physical activity by assigning a fitness goal using FitPoints. Each activity can be logged into the Weight Watchers app until the user reaches their weekly FitPoint goal. Along with diet and exercise counseling, Weight Watchers sells packaged food like frozen meals, oatmeal, chocolates and low-calorie ice cream. Weight Watchers uses a science-based approach to weight loss, emphasizing the importance of portion control, food choices and slow, consistent weight loss.

Unlike many fad diets that promise unrealistic results over short periods of time, Weight Watchers explains to members that they should expect to lose. The program highlights lifestyle modification and counsels members on how to make better decisions by using the SmartPoints system, which prioritizes healthy foods. Many studies have shown that Weight Watchers can help with weight loss. In fact, Weight Watchers devotes an entire page of their website to scientific studies supporting their program.

One study found that overweight people who were told to lose weight by their doctors lost twice as much weight on the Weight Watchers program than those who received standard weight loss counseling from a primary care professional 1. The hyoid helps direct the stress of impact below and around the skull and brain and also acts like a 'safety belt', helping to keep the brain in place.

It is the movement of the brain inside the skull during impact, more than the blow itself, that causes concussions. If the brain is held in place, injury risks are greatly reduced.

As in the above figure, time after impact proceeds from upper left to lower right Figures from Wang et al. Built to peck - Segment 2. Built to peck - Segment 4. Built to peck - Segment 5. Built to peck - Segment 6. Built to peck - Segment 7. The capillary ratchet mechanism. Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: They peck at the surface, picking up droplets of water with prey inside.

Because their beaks point downward when feeding, gravity must be overcome to get those droplets from the tip of the bird's long beak to its mouth. This feeding strategy depends on surface tension. As the beak opens and closes, each movement propels the water droplet one step closer to the bird's mouth. Specifically, when the beak closes, the drop's leading edge moves toward the mouth, while the trailing edge stays put. In this stepwise ratcheting fashion, the drop travels along the beak at a speed of about 1 meter per second.

The efficiency of the process, called the "capillary ratchet," depends on beak shape, and long, narrow beaks, like those of phalaropes, are best suited to this mode of feeding.

Serin Serinus serinus with a seed positioned in its bill. Note how the tongue is used to hold the seed in position From: Their data provide the first detailed description of this highly specialized foraging technique. They recorded no or a very low deceleration when Gannets entered the water, which underlines the remarkable streamlining of this large bird.

Birds use their momentum to travel underwater at an average descent rate of 2. After chasing prey, birds developed an upward momentum before gliding passively back to the surface, making use of their buoyancy to complete the dive at the lowest possible energy cost. Check the Gannet videos at ARKive.

Aerial insectivores -- Swifts depend on flying efficiently and maintaining high speed. Hawking insectivores, like flycatchers , depend on perches located near prey, but they must be able to accelerate rapidly and be very maneuverable.

Swallows combine these two strategies; they are fast, maneuverable and able to accelerate when necessary Warrick Although not part of the digestive system in an anatomical sense, some birds, like hawks and owls , use their feet and talons to capture prey. Typically, raptor prey are killed by the talons of the contracting foot being driven into their bodies; if required, the hooked bill is used to kill prey being held by the talons.

The raptor digital tendon locking mechanism -- Digital tendons form a mechanical-locking mechanism in many birds that must maintain a degree of grip force, including perching, hanging, tree-climbing, and raptorial species. In raptors, powerful hindlimb muscles produce a strong grasp, and a tendon locking mechanism TLM helps sustain grip force. The components of the digital TLM include a 'textured' pad on the ventral surface of each flexor tendon that contains thousands of minute, rigid, well-defined projections called tubercles see figure below.

The neighboring portion of the surrounding tendon sheath contains a series of transversely running plicae folds that often have a proximal slant i. When the flexor tendons are pulled taut, and the digits flexed, the tubercle pad moves proximally over the stationary plicae on the sheath.

When resistance to digital flexion is met, the locking elements intermesh and engage and the friction produced prevents slippage of the tendons. This permits digital flexion to be maintained with little or no muscular involvement E inoder and Richardson Action of the avian digital TLM: This shows the movement of the talon a , flexor e and extensor d tendons, ungual phalanx b , and the movement of the ventrally located tubercle pad f relative to the stationary plicated sheath g and phalangeal bone c From: Einoder and Richardson Each raptor has a unique force production, along with a different time of activity, that would allow for a degree of prey specialization.

Great Horned Owl foot. B Great Horned Owl. The relation between rate of success and direction of movement for a food item that was pulled forward a , backward b and sideways c. Direction of prey progression — dotted arrow 1 , direction of owl flight — dashed arrow 2 , and direction to which the owl had to move its head or trunk — solid arrow 3.

Owl picture from Knudsen Movement and direction of prey affect raptor success rate -- Shifferman and Eilam tested a novel idea, that rather than maximizing their distance from a predator during close-distance encounters, prey species are better off moving directly or diagonally toward the predator in order to increase the relative speed and confine the attack to a single available clashing point.

They used two tamed Barn Owls Tyto alba to measure the rate of attack success in relation to the direction of prey movement. A dead mouse or chick was used to simulate the prey, pulled to various directions by means of a transparent string during the owl's attack. This failure to catch prey that move sideways may reflect constraints in postural head movements in aerial raptors that cannot move the eyes but rather move the entire head in tracking prey.

So far there is no evidence that defensive behavior in terrestrial prey species takes advantage of the above escape directions to lower rates of predator success. However, birds seem to adjust their defensive tactics in the vertical domain by taking-off at a steep angle, thus moving diagonally toward the direction of an approaching aerial predator.

These preliminary findings warrant further studies in Barn Owls and other predators, in both field and laboratory settings, to uncover fine predator head movements during hunting, the corresponding defensive behavior of the prey, and the adaptive significance of these behaviors. Barred Owl primary - leading edge below and trailing edge above.

The silent flight of owls -- Noise is generated by vortices produced when air flows over a bird's wing and larger vortices produce more noise. Wings with small saw-toothed projections vortex generators , like those on the leading edge of owl wings, generate many small vortices instead of large vortices and produces less aerodynamic noise.

In addition, the fringe feathers at the trailing edge of the wing with fewer hooklets at the ends of the barbs help to break up the sound waves that are generated as air flows over the top of their wings and forms downstream wakes, and the soft down feathers located elsewhere on the wings and legs of owls absorb the remaining sound frequencies above 2, hertz and make owls completely silent to their prey.

As a bonus, with high angles of attack and at slow speeds, vortex generators stick out of the stagnant air near the surface of the wing, and into the freely moving air outside the boundary layer. This surface layer is typically quite thin, but dramatically reduces speed of the airflow towards the rear of the wing.

The vortex generators mix the free stream with the stagnant air to get it moving again, providing considerably more airflow at the rear of the wing and helping to prevent stalling. This process is referred to as 're-energizing the boundary layer. Unpredictable predators -- The use of space by predators in relation to their prey is a poorly understood aspect of predator-prey interactions. Classic theory suggests that predators should focus their efforts on areas of abundant prey, that is, prey hotspots, whereas game-theoretical models of predator and prey movement suggest that the distribution of predators should match that of their prey's resources.

If, however, prey are spatially anchored to one location and these prey have particularly strong antipredator responses that make them difficult to capture with frequent attacks, then predators may be forced to adopt alternative movement strategies to hunt behaviorally responsive prey.

Roth and Lima examined the movement patterns of bird-eating Sharp-shinned Hawks Accipiter striatus in an attempt to shed light on hotspot use by predators. Their results suggest that these hawks do not focus on prey hotspots such as bird feeders but instead maintain much spatial and temporal unpredictability in their movements.

Hawks seldom revisited the same area, and the few frequently used areas were revisited in a manner consistent with unpredictable returns, giving prey little additional information about risk. But why wouldn't Sharp-shinned Hawks focus their hunting on the areas with the most potential prey bird feeders? One possibility is that behaviorally responsive prey diminish the "hotspot" quality of feeders.

Although feeder hotspots are sources of abundant prey, the individuals at such feeders generally benefit from group vigilance as a result of these higher densities. As a result, the vulnerability of the prey may actually be lower at feeders than at other locations. In addition, unpredictable movement may reflect a sort of "prey management" by predators, whereby predators spread their hunting activity over multiple areas in an effort to avoid inflating the antipredator behavior of their prey.

This hunting strategy may be effective when prey are anchored to high-resource areas such as feeders and use antipredator behaviors, such as high vigilance, that reduce a predator's attack success if it attacks frequently and predictably. Seabirds are choking on ocean plastic video. The tongues of cormorants and other fish-eating species are small because these species swallow prey whole and tongues are not needed to manipulate or position food in the oral cavity.

Dorsal view of the surface of the lower bill of a Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Arrow shows the tongue with sharpened tip. Scale bar, 12 mm.

Lateral view of the cormorant tongue. The tongue and the small anterior and posterior areas of the mucosa of the bill are covered by white keratinized epithelium. Black arrow shows short base of the tongue.

White arrow shows the median crest on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A, anterior; B, posterior. Scale bar, 3 mm Source: Detailed view of the horny tip left of the Guadeloupe Woodpecker tongue in vivo position Villard and Cuisin Dorsal view of the tongue of the Spotted Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. Arrows show two elongated processes of the apex. A, apex, B, body, R, root, LP, laryngeal prominence. Scale bar, 3 mm. Lateral view of the tongue of the nutcracker.

Arrow shows elongated processes, pointed diagonally, B, body, R, root. Hummingbird tongues are fluid traps, not capillary tubes -- Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes.

Rico-Guevara and Rubega found that hummingbird tongues do not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that dynamically traps nectar by rapidly changing their shape during feeding. In addition, the tongue—fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap.

These results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Hummingbird tongue tips twist to trap nectar. How the hummingbird tongue really works with videos. Close encounters with possible prey. You want to live 10—20 years. You are peering under leaves, poking into rolled ones, searching around stems, exploring bark crevices and other insect hiding places.

Abruptly an eye appears, 1—5 cm from your bill. The eye or a portion of it is half seen, obstructed, shadowed, partly out of focus, more or less round, multicolored, and perhaps moving. Now, a safe few meters away, are you going to go back to see whether that was food? Associated body patterns often suggest other head and facial features, which in turn enhance the eye-like nature of the spots. None of these patterns exactly matches the eyes or face of any particular species of predator; but, even when quickly and partially glimpsed, all give the illusion of an eye or face.

These false eyes are mimicking the eyes and faces of such predators of insect-eating birds as snakes, lizards, other birds, and small mammals, as perceived at close range by the insectivorous birds in their natural world. Note the distended throat of this American Kestrel.

Pigeons generally lay two eggs one day apart, which hatch 18 days after they are laid. A similar substance is produced by flamingos and male Emperor Penguins. The normal function of the crop is food storage.

Pigeon 'milk' also contains IgA antibodies and antioxidants carotenoids. The avian stomach is divided into 2 parts:. Photomicrograph 50X of a cross section through the proventriculus showing folds of mucous membrane P ; deep proventricular glands GP ; capsule connective tissue around the glands arrow head ; muscle layer m ; serosa connective tissue with blood vessels S , and the lumen L From: Photomicrograph X of longitudinal section of the gizzard showing folds of mucous membrane lined by simple prismatic epithelium P ; simple tubular glands Gs in the lamina propria constituted by connective tissue Lp ; secretion of glands S that are continuous with the cuticle or koilin ; C , part of muscle layer m , interpersed with bundles of connective tissue Tc From: Photomicrograph X of the koilin of an Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus.

Note the regular, columnated structure of the koilin layer K and its association with the glandular epithelium E of the ventriculus From: De Voe et al. A, koilin, B, crypts, C, glands that secrete koilin, D, epithelial surface, E, desquamated epithelial cells, 2 Mucosa of the gizzard. A, koilin, B, secretion in gland lumens and crypts, and 3 Koilin layer. A, secretion column, B, koilin-layer surface, C, horizontal stripe indicating a 'pause' in secretion of the koilin, D, cellular debris.

Eglitis and Knouff Vultures of the seas -- Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches.

GPS-tracking of 40 Wandering Albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between — km, giving the birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes were obtained.

Such low stomach pH gives Wandering Albatrosses a strategic advantage because it allows a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for Wandering Albatrosses. It is likely that this physiological characteristic evolved as a response to a diet largely composed of squid, and to a patchy distribution of this food resource resulting in large, infrequent meals.

The strategy of Wandering Albatrosses is to cover long distances rapidly and at low costs to increase the probability of encountering dispersed prey patches whose distribution is unpredictable.

Knots with large gizzards consumed far more molluscs with shells than the birds with smaller gizzards. Birds with smaller gizzards simply couldn't feed fast enough. By allowing them to crush more shell per gizzard-full, larger gizzards gave birds the edge. Thus, even though it is energetically costly for the knots to maintain a larger gizzard, when the bird needs to get the most out of its crunchy diet, it's a price worth paying.

So, the birds' gizzards enlarge as they fatten for migration. Has been recommended by independent researchers physicians If you are not completely satisfied, simply return for a full refund! Produced exclusively by HGH.

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