Creatine itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine , which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal muscles and the brain. Retrieved 16 August In , creatine was shown to exist in equilibrium with creatinine. H , H , H So you'll skip Standard American Diet stuff—red meat, processed foods with trans fats—and eat more veggie protein, nuts, and whole fat dairy. The secret sauce to their success? As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold.
Creatine taken with medications that can harm the kidney can increase the risk of kidney damage: Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3—6 hours throughout the day.
As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold. The rest is eliminated as waste. Creatine supplementation appears to increase the number of myonuclei that satellite cells will 'donate' to damaged muscle fibers , which increases the potential for growth of those fibers. This increase in myonuclei probably stems from creatine's ability to increase levels of the myogenic transcription factor MRF4. Creatine supplements are marketed in ethyl ester , gluconate , monohydrate , and nitrate forms.
The most prevalent of these contaminants was creatinine , a breakdown product of creatine also produced by the body. Heavy metals contamination was not found to be a concern, with only minor levels of mercury being detectable. Two studies reviewed in found no impurities. In , Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found evidence that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle.
The substance creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates. While creatine's influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, it came into public view following the Olympics in Barcelona.
An August 7, article in The Times reported that Linford Christie , the gold medal winner at meters, had used creatine before the Olympics. An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell , who was the gold medalist in the meter hurdles, as another creatine user. In addition, The Times also noted that meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics. At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences EAS introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.
It is ineffective as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A meta-analysis found that creatine treatment increased muscle strength in muscular dystrophies, and potentially improved functional performance. Creatine's impact on mitochondrial function has led to research on its efficacy and safety for slowing Parkinson's disease. As of , the evidence did not provide a reliable foundation for treatment decisions, due to risk of bias, small sample sizes, and the short duration of trials.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September Not to be confused with creatinine. N -Carbamimidoyl- N -methylglycine; Methylguanidoacetic acid. Interactive image Interactive image. Std molar entropy S o Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman, eds. Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health. Metabolism and Possible Interactions". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. The process of creatine synthesis occurs in two steps, catalyzed by L-arginine: The apparent dissociation constants of creatine and creatinine" PDF.
Stout, Jose Antonio, Douglas Kalman. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Salomons, Markus Wyss, eds. Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Synthesis predominately occurs in the liver, kidneys, and to a lesser extent in the pancreas. Creatine synthesized in liver must be secreted into the bloodstream by an unknown mechanism Da Silva et al. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Retrieved 23 August National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 August Creatine is a chemical that is normally found in the body, mostly in muscles but also in the brain.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 3 November A systematic review with meta-analyses". Journal of Athletic Training.
Check out these seven things no one is telling you about going Paleo. Life without bacon and cheese sounds harsh, but your hips will thank you. Vegan diets beat out semi-vegetarian, pescatarian fish , and omnivorous meat and plant foods diets, according to recent research.
In fact, after six months, dieters lost more than twice the weight compared to the other groups. But you can't nix all animal products and call it a day—quality matters. If you're going vegan, focus on those complex carbs, produce, healthy fats, and whole soy foods; skip processed junk, even if it's vegan. Whether your reason for going vegetarian is ethical, environmental, or for health, one thing's for sure: In fact, in that same study that evaluated vegan, vegetarian, and omnivorous diets, vegetarian diets were almost as effective as vegan—helping people lose 6.
Even if you fall off the wagon and break your diet hey, it happens! If it can get Jennifer Aniston her amazing abs, arms, butt, well then, we're going to take it into consideration. On the low carb plan, you eat low-fat protein, non-starchy vegetables, small amounts of fruit, and a bit of healthy fat like olive oil. In a meta-analysis that pitted The Zone diet against Weight Watchers, Atkins, and South Beach, researchers found The Zone is good for modest, long-term weight loss.
After a year, dieters dropped 3. Not bad, but it may be disappointing if you have more to lose. Reverse or prevent heart disease. Nutrition of course plays a huge role in a healthy ticker, and Dr. Ornish's plan keeps you focused on eating the super healthy stuff: The challenge is no meat, poultry, or fish or caffeine so it can be hard to follow , but you can eat unlimited calories if you're doing it for health rather than weight loss. Not only is it ranked a top plant-based and heart-healthy diet by U.
If you've got baby making on the mind, this may be the diet for you. Its basis comes from a book by Harvard docs , in which they make their recommendations from the Nurses' Health Study that concluded that what you eat impacts egg quality, ovulation, and your chances of getting pregnant. So you'll skip Standard American Diet stuff—red meat, processed foods with trans fats—and eat more veggie protein, nuts, and whole fat dairy.
Spokesperson Marie Osmond says she lost 50 pounds, but could you get the same results on the high protein , high fiber, and low fat meal replacement plan? A recent study compared commercial diet plans and found that Nutrisystem was one of the more successful diets, helping people lose 3. Though researchers say more long term studies are needed.
First you'll meet with a consultant, then pick out your own menu of Jenny Craig food. Meals are designed to be lower cal versions of what you love, like chocolate shakes, pancakes, and burgers. The combo of social support plus portion control is a fat-busting duo, helping dieters lose nearly 5 percent more weight after a year versus dieters in a control group, according to the same study that evaluated Nutrisystem.
It's so promising that researchers think docs should recommend Jenny Craig to their overweight patients. You'd think that a weight loss competition show would push some sort of crazy gimmicky plan that leaves you starving.
But this one goes heavy on the fruits, veggies, and lean protein— and exercise. Sounds like it makes sense, right? Exactly—and that's why it works. News and World Report rated The Biggest Loser Diet as one of the best for weight loss particularly when you need to slim down fast. When it came onto the scene, it was revolutionary and totally rule-breaking.
Eat all the meaty goodness you want—as long as you drastically cut carbs. And in a study on young, overweight and obese women, Atkins beat out higher-carb plans, when dieters shed over 10 pounds in a year compared to less than five in other diets And, nope, Atkins didn't clog their arteries either.
Of course, while it's effective for weight loss, low carb diets can be unbalanced if you eat too much meat and too few veggies. Think about if it fits your lifestyle—and don't give up on the other components of a healthy diet—before hopping on the carb-cutting bandwagon. A love for the drive thru can get you in trouble: Luckily, though, cleaning up your eats can help reverse some damage to liver cells.
The American Liver Foundation recommends keeping them low-cal and loading up on fiber raspberries, lentils, and oatmeal are good choices. But keep in mind this isn't a fad diet—it's more a medical necessity for those at risk. So while it's generally healthy, there's no reason to go on it specifically unless advised by your doctor.
Talk about heart ache: To eat to lower your blood pressure, you just need to focus on heart-healthy bites. The American Heart Association recommends loading up on fruits, veggies, whole grains, low- or non-fat dairy, beans, lean meats, and fish.
Diet alone can't cure arthritis—but it can help ease joint pain. The key is loading up on foods that lower inflammation, according to the Arthritis Foundation. So go for more fish, nuts, fruits and veggies, whole grains, and olive oil; limit alcohol, saturated fat, processed junk, and sugar.
Who could argue with a diet that emphasizes foods like beans, berries, whole grains, greens, nuts, seeds, and potatoes? Those foods are all good fiber-filled picks. The hunger-taming nutrient is a super star for filing you up, so you naturally eat less throughout the day. Not to mention that, when researchers asked people to make just one change to their diet—add more fiber—they were almost four pounds skinnier after a year compared to those following the American Heart Association dietary guidelines.
Aim for at least 30 grams a day and you'll be on the right track. If you do, experts say that what you eat can make a huge difference in finding relief, especially if you don't want to rely on meds. So you'll eat fewer fatty, greasy foods—goodbye fast food—and avoid alcohol. Both changes can lead to one nice but unintentional side effect: If you're doing it for quick weight loss or to jumpstart a diet, it can get the job done, says Salzman.
But you've got to make those calories count. Choose the 1,calorie plan if going down a dress size is your goal. You could also do a 2,calorie plan if you're in weight maintenance mode.
The company sends you low-cal, low-fat already prepared and perfectly portioned meals of fresh food, making this ideal if you don't like to cook or don't have time to do it. When you're diabetic , it's crucial to eat well to keep blood sugar stable. The American Diabetes Association says you can use visual cues on your plate to do it right: If you're one of the 86 million adults in the US who have pre-diabetes , losing 5 to 7 percent of your body weight can prevent the disease from developing, according to research.
If you've been noticing excess facial hair, period irregularities, acne, and you're obese, your doc may consider Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.