Smart card

So why choose the Atkins diet plan over all the rest?

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Thelma does your copy have the daily menu plan -7 day plan and a list of exchanges? Hi Melissa I just found your blog and I am extremely intrigued. It is absolutely impossible to have a child and not allow for junk. See also free-to-view and pay television. I have a question about your ww overnight pizza dough recipe. If overindulgence is the exception, rather than the rule, you'll balance things out over the long term. The kids loved theirs and we loved ours!!

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How to Lose Weight in One Month- Diet Chart for Weight Loss (Part 2)

After all, life is complicated enough already! Which is the whole reason why I have put together this site. Being overweight can quickly become overwhelming. Your whole life can become completely consumed first by your unhealthy relationship with food, and then by your desire to change it. It may sound like a cliché, but when I first started out on the Atkins diet I really was at rock bottom. I felt that my life was spiraling out of control — even just thinking about starting a diet had me breaking down in tears.

We both had to get out of the car in front of everyone — people I knew and who my son went to school with. Humiliating for me and for him is an understatement. So this time I wanted a diet that was going to be easy to follow, give fast results and be something I knew I could stick to in the long term.

After looking around I decided that The Atkins Nutritional Approach seemed like the best choice for me, and besides I already knew people who had shed tens of pounds by following the healthy diet plans, so I knew it worked.

If this is your first introduction to the Atkins diet, then you may be asking yourself, what is this diet? Well, the Atkins diet plan was developed by Dr Robert Atkins way back in Atkins was a scientist, who was also overweight, and he devised his diet to help himself lose weight, and consequently help millions of other people worldwide to do the same by following the plan and using the food list — a low carb food list and high protein diet plan that guarantees results.

Put simply, tis diet involves limiting your intake of carbohydrates so that your body switches from metabolizing burning up glucose and switches over to burning fat in a process called ketosis — so, instead of using carbohydrates for energy your body uses fat. Digested carbohydrates convert to glucose sugar , which is transported in your bloodstream.

This glucose triggers the release of a hormone called insulin. Atkins argued that rises in insulin levels after a carb-heavy meal causes the blood sugar to fluctuate wildly, giving us short bursts of energy followed by periods of tiredness and hunger, whereas a low carb diet keeps the blood sugar levels more constant and so your energy levels also remain steady.

Eating a diet high in protein, fat and fiber means the body has less glucose to burn first, and so it starts to burn fat instead. Once your body is using fat as its primary source of energy it will mean that you will start to lose weight.

To get the body into this fat burning mode foods that are high in carbohydrates have to be avoided during the first two weeks of the diet the induction phase , after which time they are gradually reintroduced. If you want to know more about the science behind the diet and how it works, then take a look this page, What is the Atkins Diet? For your motivation, take a look at this short video: The diet is broken down into four distinct phases. These phases are there to ensure that you lose weight fast and safe.

The food list for Atkins diet followers explains what you are allowed to eat in each phase. This lasts for two weeks and is the most restrictive phase of the whole diet. You eat three main meals a day or five to six smaller ones if you prefer choosing items from the Atkins diet food list.

There are a few basic rules you must follow. This means you can choose how many meals a day you will need to have based around your working hours or lifestyle. Make those normal sized or big glasses, not too small. The OWL phase, where the net carb allowance is gradually increased to a point where weight loss is still ongoing.

This is done by increasing your daily net carbs by 5g a day, so that you keep losing weight. You can use the Atkins carb counter to help during this transitional phase. This phase starts when you are within ten pounds of your goal weight.

Once again, you will start to increase your net carb intake as well as introducing extra foods until your weight loss slows and starts to maintain at the same level. Here, you commit to a healthy lifestyle to keep the pounds off!

You will still need to keep an eye on what you are eating, using the food list and Atkins carb counter will help you to do this. I just wish that someone had written out an food list for me when I first began.

Knowing what foods to eat would have made the first month or two a whole lot easier for me. A trip to the food store would have been a treat and not the chore it would inevitably turn into. Fortunately my steady weight loss kept me going, and I soon got the hang of the Atkins diet menu. The induction phase lasts for two weeks, it is designed to kick start your body into burning fat.

All of the foods below are carb free and can be eaten freely. This means all types of unprocessed meat: If the meat is processed you will need to check for any added carbohydrate, if you see it listed in the ingredients then either count the carbs or avoid it.

Haddock, tuna, cod, prawns, oysters, lobster, crab — any, yes any fish and shellfish. In any style, scrambled, deviled, fried, poached, boiled, etc. Hen, chicken, goose,duck — all types of eggs are included.

Use in your coffee instead of milk you can water it down first if you prefer. Water, diet tonic, zero calorie flavored waters,tea and coffee. Caffeine should be taken in moderation, and decaffeinated is preferable. The foods on this Atkins diet food list all contain carbohydrates, so they have to be limited. EMVco's purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the version.

EMVco upgraded the specifications in and EMV compliant cards were first accepted into Malaysia in [8] and later into United States in MasterCard was the first company that was allowed to use the technology in the United States. The United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft. The credit card information stolen from Target in late was one of the largest indicators that American credit card information is not safe.

Target made the decision on April 30, that it would try to implement the smart chip technology in order to protect itself from future credit card identity theft. Before , the consensus in America was that there were enough security measures to avoid credit card theft and that the smart chip was not necessary. The cost of the smart chip technology was significant, which was why most of the corporations did not want to pay for it in the United States. The debate came when online credit theft was insecure enough for the United States to invest in the technology.

The adaptation of EMV's increased significantly in when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies. Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a card and reader. They are becoming more popular for payment and ticketing. Typical uses include mass transit and motorway tolls. Visa and MasterCard implemented a version deployed in — in the U.

This has reduced media cost so it can be used for low cost tickets and short term transport passes up to 1 year typically. They are distributed through vending machines, ticket offices and agents. Smart cards are also being introduced for identification and entitlement by regional, national, and international organizations.

Contactless smart cards are part of ICAO biometric passports to enhance security for international travel. Since April , a Japanese company has manufactured reusable financial smart cards made from paper. Contact smart cards have a contact area of approximately 1 square centimetre 0. These pads provide electrical connectivity when inserted into a reader , [14] which is used as a communications medium between the smart card and a host e.

Cards do not contain batteries ; power is supplied by the card reader. This allows smaller and cheaper financial card terminals. These cards require only proximity to an antenna to communicate. Like smart cards with contacts, contactless cards do not have an internal power source.

Instead, they use an inductor to capture some of the incident radio-frequency interrogation signal, rectify it, and use it to power the card's electronics. Dual-interface cards implement contactless and contact interfaces on a single card with some shared storage and processing. This allows the smartcard to be used as a security token for authentication and data encryption such as Bitlocker.

Smart cards serve as credit or ATM cards , fuel cards , mobile phone SIMs , authorization cards for pay television, household utility pre-payment cards, high-security identification and access badges , and public transport and public phone payment cards. Smart cards may also be used as electronic wallets. The smart card chip can be "loaded" with funds to pay parking meters, vending machines or merchants.

Cryptographic protocols protect the exchange of money between the smart card and the machine. No connection to a bank is needed. The holder of the card may use it even if not the owner. Examples are Proton , Geldkarte , Chipknip and Moneo. The German Geldkarte is also used to validate customer age at vending machines for cigarettes. Roll-outs started in in the U. Asia and Europe followed in Non-EMV cards work like magnetic stripe cards. This is common in the U. The cards do not hold or maintain the account balance.

All payment passes without a PIN, usually in off-line mode. The security of such a transaction is no greater than with a magnetic stripe card transaction. EMV cards can have either contact or contactless interfaces. They work as if they were a normal EMV card with a contact interface. Via the contactless interface they work somewhat differently, in that the card commands enabled improved features such as lower power and shorter transaction times.

The subscriber identity modules used in mobile-phone systems are reduced-size smart cards, using otherwise identical technologies. Smart-cards can authenticate identity. Sometimes they employ a public key infrastructure PKI. The card stores an encrypted digital certificate issued from the PKI provider along with other relevant information. Examples include the U. If they include biometric identification data, cards can provide superior two- or three-factor authentication.

Smart cards are not always privacy-enhancing, because the subject may carry incriminating information on the card. Contactless smart cards that can be read from within a wallet or even a garment simplify authentication; however, criminals may access data from these cards. Cryptographic smart cards are often used for single sign-on. Today's cryptographic smart cards generate key pairs on board, to avoid the risk from having more than one copy of the key since by design there usually isn't a way to extract private keys from a smart card.

Such smart cards are mainly used for digital signatures and secure identification. The most common way to access cryptographic smart card functions on a computer is to use a vendor-provided PKCS 11 library. Turkey implemented the first smart card driver's license system in Turkey had a high level of road accidents and decided to develop and use digital tachograph devices on heavy vehicles, instead of the existing mechanical ones, to reduce speed violations.

Since , the professional driver's licenses in Turkey have been issued as smart cards. A professional driver is required to insert his driver's license into a digital tachograph before starting to drive.

The tachograph unit records speed violations for each driver and gives a printed report. The driving hours for each driver are also being monitored and reported. In this study, chapter seven describes Turkey's experience. Argentina's Mendoza province began using smart card driver's licenses in Mendoza also had a high level of road accidents, driving offenses, and a poor record of recovering fines. They also store personal information, license type and number, and a photograph.

Emergency medical information such as blood type, allergies, and biometrics fingerprints can be stored on the chip if the card holder wishes. In Gujarat was the first Indian state to introduce a smart card license system. In , the Estonian government started to issue smart cards named ID Kaart as primary identification for citizens to replace the usual passport in domestic and EU use. As of about 1 million smart cards have been issued total population is about 1.

By the start of , the entire population of Belgium was issued eID cards that are used for identification. These cards contain two certificates: This signature is legally enforceable.

More and more services in Belgium use eID for authorization. Spain started issuing national ID cards DNI in the form of Smartcards in and gradually replaced all the older ones with Smartcards.

The idea was that many or most bureaucratic acts could be done online but it was a failure because the Administration did not adapt and still mostly requires paper documents and personal presence.

On August 14, , the ID cards in Pakistan were replaced. The Smart Card is a third generation chip-based identity document that is produced according to international standards and requirements. The card has over 36 physical security features and has the latest [ clarification needed ] encryption codes.

Smart cards may identify emergency responders and their skills. Cards like these allow first responders to bypass organizational paperwork and focus more time on the emergency resolution. In , The Smart Card Alliance expressed the needs: WidePoint Corporation , a smart card provider to FEMA , produces cards that contain additional personal information, such as medical records and skill sets.

Smart cards are also used to identify user accounts on arcade machines. Smart cards, used as transit passes , and integrated ticketing are used by many public transit operators.

Card users may also make small purchases using the cards. Some operators offer points for usage, exchanged at retailers or for other benefits. However, these present a privacy risk because they allow the mass transit operator and the government to track an individual's movement. In Finland, for example, the Data Protection Ombudsman prohibited the transport operator Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council YTV from collecting such information, despite YTV's argument that the card owner has the right to a list of trips paid with the card.

Earlier, such information was used in the investigation of the Myyrmanni bombing. The UK's Department for Transport mandated smart cards to administer travel entitlements for elderly and disabled residents. These schemes let residents use the cards for more than just bus passes. They can also be used for taxi and other concessionary transport. One example is the "Smartcare go" scheme provided by Ecebs.

Other schemes in the UK include period travel passes, carnets of tickets or day passes and stored value which can be used to pay for journeys. Other concessions for school pupils, students and job seekers are also supported. Many smart transport schemes include the use of low cost smart tickets for simple journeys, day passes and visitor passes. Examples include Glasgow SPT subway. Smart cards can be used as a security token. Mozilla's Firefox web browser can use smart cards to store certificates for use in secure web browsing.

GnuPG , the well known encryption suite, also supports storing keys in a smart card. Smart cards are also used for single sign-on to log on to computers. Smart cards are being provided to students at some schools and colleges. Smart health cards can improve the security and privacy of patient information, provide a secure carrier for portable medical records , reduce health care fraud , support new processes for portable medical records, provide secure access to emergency medical information, enable compliance with government initiatives e.

Smart cards are widely used to encrypt digital television streams. VideoGuard is a specific example of how smart card security worked. The Malaysian government promotes MyKad as a single system for all smart-card applications.

MyKad started as identity cards carried by all citizens and resident non-citizens. Available applications now include identity, travel documents, drivers license, health information, an electronic wallet, ATM bank-card, public toll-road and transit payments, and public key encryption infrastructure.

Smart cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant. The chip usually implements some cryptographic algorithm. There are, however, several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state.

Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electric current required for certain encryption or decryption operations.

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