Harmful or Harmless: Soy Lecithin

Navigation menu

Primary Menu
But now I guess I know two people. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one third, because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans. Its as simple as Adam n Eve who sinned and did not listen to God. Now I know and monitor his consumption and treat when necessary.

INTRO NUMBER TWO: The Billboard Effect.

Why I Switched from Weight Watchers to Medifast

I think of it as my 'reward' - not in the way you get a cookie as a reward but that as long as I can get to a healthy weight and stay there, then my love affair with real food can continue I made the mistake of not continuing to weigh in with WW once I lost the weight more than 10 years ago now. It won't happen again. I'm just trying to not veer off on my own path quite yet. Because I've definitely learned some good things from Medifast, things I'll want to continue.

Thanks for the referral too, I'll check into it! I make everything from scratch, so get to make the things I love to eat, but I find as I age I need to eat less to stay in a healthy weight range; consciously moving more helps too.

I hope you will find the balance that works for you once you have transitioned back to food. Once you are happy you are in a weight range that suits you, please be kind to yourself and do something immediately to remedy the situation should the scales start upwards or your clothes get tighter, so that you don't have to resort to expensive, processed diet food ever again.

Alanna, Good on your for taking charge of your health! I told you it looks like you're aging backwards in that photo-weight loss and daily vigorous exercise sure shine almost as much as your smile. I am not trying to lose weight, only to get on my Reformer in the basement at least 3 times a week, but when a bunch of friends were trying and told me about myfitnesspal I did that. For me, though, cooking new recipes from scratch all the time, it was more of a pain in the bum to type in each recipe than the reward of seeing the calorie count would have been.

I have no suggestions for you in that area. So I will say that having some sort of goal a wedding, a half marathon is probably a good motivator. I don't know--still icy on the sidewalks so I'm not going to take the pup out for a 10 mile training walk this morning.

Three miles will have to do. I'm so proud of you! Also, I can't go on something that eventually I have to "go off of". I am learning moderation, portion control, all the things I need to work out in "real life. I love to cook, love to try WW recipies, and my family doesn't even know. I am staying right here, and have now kept my weight off for 6 months, even during the holidays. Alanna you look wonderful!

My husband and I went on Medifast a few years ago through a nurse at a hospital who guided us. We had to check in with her every week. We lost a lot of weight, felt and looked great. I agree with many of your observations Of course, once we got "off" it we managed to regain much of it.

That is not the fault of MF, but our bad habits returning. I am now WW'g with a friend Thanks for your honest sharing.

You are indeed a blessing. I actually started low-carb whole food a few weeks ago and have felt really great. I used to do Weight Watchers, and I did it faithfully, but it just didn't work for me. I mean, it's one of the most highly recommended and highly statistically successful programs. I know people who have lost pounds and inches and sizes. But for me, it wasn't right; my weight and size remained stagnant. It took a bit to realize that I didn't have to fit in with all those statistics.

Good on you for branching out and finding a different path to health. In the past I had lost quite a bit of weight by basically learning about food portions and making sure I didn't overdo any certain type of food. And I worked out. But once I went off program I gained all that weight back -- and another pounds on top of it.

TSFL is a division of Medifast that comes with all sorts of free support and education that makes transitioning back to whole foods safe and easy. It helps you retrain your brain so you don't go back to the unhealthy habits you had before. It's more about creating health for life hence its name than about losing weight as a short-term goal. I started Oct 2 and as of this posting I've lost 55 pounds. I think I safely fall into the category of "results not typical".

It's amazing how great I feel -- how much energy I have, how my cravings have gone away, how I've broken my addictions from sugar and carbs, how I'm sleeping better Ive lost weight before, but nothing like this. Nothing this fast or easy. That's worth a lot to me. A few thoughts on some of the objections: I wasn't excited about dehydrated food, either. But do you realize how much processed foods most of us use anyway?? Unless you're making your own breads, pastas, yogurts, growing your own veggies and fruits, etc etc, you are definitely eating a lot of processed foods, even if it's "healthy".

At least this food is formulated by doctors to be nutritionally balanced and healthy for you. I heard the price and laughed.

But then I sat down and looked at how much I was spending on food: I ate a lot at my work's cafeteria or coffee bar. The portion of our grocery bill that was stuff I wouldn't use while on Medifast was huge. Suddenly the cost looked so much more manageable. Support on this program is free, unlike other weight loss programs so I was saving those fees as well. Plus consider how much you spend on doctor co-pays, medicines, and how much you could spend ultimately in hospital and other medical bills if you don't lose the weight.

If you've spent money on failing on other plans in the past, why keep going back? The only way to know if you'll succeed on a different program is to try it. In the case of Medifast, if it's not the program for you, return your uneaten food and get most of your money back. This program does not abandon you once you've reached your goal.

It will teach you how to transition back into "real" foods again and then finally teach you how to use those real foods to keep the weight off and be healthy for life. And with TSFL -- the support is free to you for life, even if you're not using the Medifast products anymore. Not a bad deal. Some of it I won't touch again. But a lot of it is really fairly decent and some of it I downright love And then for those foods you're not so crazy about, there are all sorts of creative people out there on the internet who find ways to prepare foods in completely different ways that do make them enjoyable.

For example, unlike Alanna, I can't stand the chocolate shakes. But they make a pretty decent cupcake! I never thought that a program that provides most of your food for me would ever work. I LOVE fresh foods -- fruit in particular was hard for me to give up. When you see results like this as quickly as this, suddenly it's not quite the sacrifice. And I know when I reach my goal I get to have those foods again. I love this journey and I love helping others reach their health goals as well.

There's no better feeling than this! Good for you for taking control of this, and I say whatever works! Great job so far!! However, once I had a little success with Medifast I was motivated to keep going.

Since starting my Medifast journey I have started exercising regularly, my foot pain from plantar fasciitis is all but gone along with all my other aches and pains and I no longer get migraines regularly. I have also started tracking all my food in MyFitnessPal and I will continue to do that after I get back to eating real food to help maintain my weight loss.

Yes - Medifast is not a perfect plan and I would much rather be eating fresh food that I prepare myself, however I needed this to help jump start positive changes in my health. I wish you continued success on Medifast and your journey to better health. I like it, thank you. And you're the second person today to mention a half marathon, good for you and Mark!

It really is a life-saver for so many. Six months is excellent, stay with it! Good luck with doing WW with your friend, here's to both of you! I so get that. I'm so glad you've found something that is working for you now.

We have different ideas on what's processed food and what's not processed food, but I hear you on each of your points. And I'm so glad you brought up the long-term support, that was new to me.

I remember when we first knew one another and talked about the differences between Weight Watchers my way and South Beach yours. The weight isn't "melting off" me like it does for some on Medifast but still, each day when I get on the scale, each day when I feel bones I haven't felt in some years, I feel grateful.

I would've expected better of you guys. Your reasons for switching from WW to MF could have been written by me last summer. I had lost on WW, but the gained back exactly half of it, all the while attending meetings faithfully and sort of following the program. When my daughter decided to try MF last January, I was supportive of her but skeptical of the meal replacements.

She did really well, so I decided I would give it a try. I decided to commit to 2 months and see where I was. Well, 6 months later, I am still here and down 50 lbs. It isn't easy, but it certainly is simple. I am a longtime and, fortunately, a successful -- so far -- WW member , and I read you for inspiration and recipes. I wish you nothing but the best with this and hope you will update us in your "journey.

Meanwhile, keep on cookin' with Medifast. I'm glad you found a plan that works for you at this time. Thank you for your honesty and courage to write about your switch. Keep up your success. Looks like you don't have too much farther to go! My story is that 11 years ago I lost 40 pounds in about two months.

It was too much too fast, but I was "ready", as you say, to just get rid of the weight. I dieted and exercised the heck out of every day--eating very little. After losing the weight I felt better and ate normal, healthy meals. Over the last five years I have gained about 15 pounds. Reaching 40 was like a stopwatch to my metabolism. In November I picked up running to spend more time with fit family and friends. I am doing the "Run Double C25K"--an app to help you run a 5k in 9 weeks.

Since I have never ran a step in my life, this is a challenge, but I want to be healthier, fit, and to spend time with other healthy people to stay on track. I haven't lost one pound and use that as motivation to keep moving. Surely all those skinny runners looked just like me when they started!

Alanna you look great and each of us will succeed using different methods, sometimes even the same methods at different times. Can't wait to hear more about your successes. Thanks for your honesty and for revealing that different things work for different people at different times of life.

A friend at work lost a lot of weight using Medifast and it's transformed her life--she even just went platinum blonde and is still slender after transitioning to mainly real food again--in her early 60s. I lost a little over 30 pounds counting calories in my early 40s when I developed hypertension and around 10 of them slipped back on with perimenopause I've figured out I need more protein now and less carbs.

Hard realization for a carb lover, but my body is talking! Thanks for the inspiration! And you size up the program exactly right, "It isn't easy, but it certainly is simple. I didn't realize you were a successful WW!! You've really got me thinking on that one This column inspired me to take a chance on a new program. I've been considering going back to WW "again", to loose the 20 pounds which crept back over the last 6 months.

But I'm a very picky eater, a great cook, and to top it off, help my neice operate her scratch bakery. Not a good weight loss combination. Since I am certain you are particular about food with a discerning palate would you be willing to share your favorite medifast "meals". It's a short list. At first, I could tolerate the chicken noodle soup but I've got three boxes on hand and am having to force myself to eat one a day just to get rid of it.

I like the spice pancakes and the chocolate pudding but don't order them because I really don't want to get used to sweet and carb-y things, which I didn't eat before and certainly don't want to get started on. I hated the eggs. I hated the sloppy joes. I hated the vegetable soup. I liked so few things, I sent everything except shakes and bars back Medifast has a good return policy and stopped trying any others. I'm not bored with the shakes, they're filling, they help me drink more liquid, I like them hot and cold.

I know that the Medifast forum is full of people who take the food and turn them into something else eg some today who doesn't like the chocolate shakes says that they make good brownies but I do not want to pretend this is "cooking" or "real food".

So I ignore those possibilities. For the record, I am NOT a picky eater with real food. While there are a few things I don't care for sweetbreads and Wonder bread or prefer cooked one way more than another boiled kale vs sauteed kale , it is rare for me to not like something.

The one thing I'd say is, do everything you can t take charge now at 20 pounds. Don't let it turn into 30 or 40 or worse. I wish I'd followed my own advice. Thank you for the article.

I at a point where I really need to loose the weight-again-and keep it off this time. My health is affected by the extra weight. I know of other people who have chosen meal replacement programs with great success. My question to you which I can't find in the article is why this program and not Jenny Craig or Nutrisystem? I was younger than 40 at the time and thought "not me!!

To be honest, I was in my late 40s when I began to notice this. It wasn't just weight creeping up, it was that I didn't feel well eating like I did when I was younger. At about the same time I read about a group of people who maintained their health and had minimal weight gain throughout their lifetimes. It didn't prompt me to eat the way they did, but it did inspire me to find out how people in other countries and cultures ate.

There were a lot of similarities and some differences -- mostly in exactly what they ate. I also started thinking back to when I was growing up in the s and s -- when it was rare to see someone who was truly overweight. I was also in contact with older adults, many of whom weren't significantly overweight and had few health problems. I either observed or asked them about their eating habits. I started noticing some similarities. The slim, healthy people in other countries and the slim, relatively healthy older adults I saw had some things in common.

Most never ate processed foods. If they did, they were consumed rarely. And contrary to the advice now to snack throughout the day, most never snacked. If they did snack it was only once a day. Among the older adults, those who were slim ate less than they had when they were younger. Not little enough to be malnourished, but definitely less than when they were in their prime. I eat three meals daily and rarely snack. About the only time I snack is if a meal is going to be significantly late.

I do eat less at meals. Two of my meals, usually breakfast and lunch, tend to be smaller and one is larger. I don't feel deprived because I'm satisfied with how much and what I eat. There's nothing I don't eat, but many things that I don't eat often. If I really want something, I have it.

I also have a general plan of what to eat at meals. I'm also a fan of Michael Pollan's mantra: I've found that I don't need to eat as much real food to be satisfied. Another thing I learned is that it's perfectly normal, in fact, somewhat necessary, for a woman to gain pounds from the time she's about 20 until her mids. It has to do with reproduction. This has been observed throughout the world and throughout history.

It's even observed in art where maidens are slim and matrons are, well, more matronly. Part of the reason it may be hard for those of us "of a certain age" to lose weight is that we're not supposed to weigh the same as when we were younger. Alanna, I wish you the best of luck on Medi-Fast! A couple of years ago my friend lost 40 pounds on the program, at the same time I was losing 20 lbs on Jenny Craig.

Two years later, she's gained 35 lbs back, and I've gained Since I've gone vegan 9 months ago none of those "packaged" plans will work for me, they all rely on animal protein of some sort.

However, if you "use" Medifast as a jumping point and maintain from there, awesome! I just couldn't do it, call me a packaged diet failure. Alanna, you look wonderful! I really enjoyed your story. I'ts similar to mine. I lost 80lbs and my husband lost lbs on WW about 12 years ago. I am a lifetime member and even worked for WW as a meeting leader for a year quit because a new job forced me to travel a lot. However, like many of us, I've gained the weight back.

I wanted to do Medifast for a while, but I was worried that it really didn't teach about how to cook or eat. It, like many other weight loss programs, just gives you the food to eat to lose weight. I liked learning what a portion is i. However, my sister-in-law pointed out something to me.

She said, "You worked for WW, you know how much to eat, how to cook, and what you should do. You're just having a hard time doing it. If you're goal is to lose weight and feel better, Medifast can help you do that. Then implement what you know you should do to keep it off.

I just was having a hard time doing the WW plan; too "open" for me right now. So, on to Medifast. I've lost 38lbs in 3 months and I haven't had one issue following the plan.

Thanks so much for your post and inspraition. So glad you posted this! As it turned out, I just got back from a trip and started on Medifast yesterday for the first time the package arrived while I was away.

Love the tip about making the shake with coffee. I'll definitely try that. I don't have a lot of weight to lose only about 15 pounds , but have just not been able to motivate myself to reduce my food intake enough to get rid of it. I think that putting myself on a diet like this where I have specific food to eat each day is the kind of structure I need to jump-start my weight loss. I usually eat well fresh foods from scratch, with lots of lean protein and veggies, not many sweets , so the idea of the pre-packaged food wasn't all that exciting to me.

I just bought the 2-week variety pack to try it out. If it works out OK, I'll order more. Since I don't need to lose a lot, I don't expect to be on it for more than a few months. If I find it hard to stick with it for a long stretch of time, perhaps I'll try alternating the Medifast food with home-cooked food on alternate weeks or even alternate days.

As long as I'm lowering my overall food intake, I should still lose weight, though more slowly, of course. Congratulations on your weight loss, and sticking with it! It's a great inspiration to me. Hi Alanna--I left a message on your blog but I guess it was after you closed it to comments. I am just wondering why you chose medifast over other meal replacement systems like Nutrisystem or Jenny Craig. Congrats on your weight loss--I hope to be down 20 to 30 lbs by this summer.

In part, that's because I didn't "choose" Medifast, it chose me by virtue of my friends Kathy and Georgia starting it. I did no other research. I honestly didn't even think of it but also know that I am often confounded by too many choices, leading to long periods of indecision.

But its hard to find price decent protein powders with NO soy. Of all the protein powders I found this one has no soy and it tastes brilliant i think because all it has in it is whey. Kamila, I have never understood why anyone would use protein powders. Protein is so complex and is found in animal and plant sources when combined properly—if you are vegetarian.

Have you tried hemp protein? Hemp seed are a complete protein, which are easily digested, and if grown in Australia they are also organic.

It is legal to purchase them in Australia and take them overseas to be consumed however it is illegal to eat them in Australia. They do not have the effects of marijuana. I have a question. I was told by a midwife that if I take a soy lethicin supplement it will help me heal from ligament stretching in my pelvis. I was unable to walk for two months after the last baby I had and am now pregnant again.

Right now I avoid most soy in processed food unless it happens to be in chocolate or eggs in the wintertime feed. What can I do as I have been told that soy is bad. Your article is saying different and unfortunately I am just taking peoples word about soy because I am not a nutritionist. I do not want to harm the baby as it grows but also would like to avoid this pain after the birth too. Hello Kim, If your midwife thinks lecithin is a good idea, you could try either sunflower or eggyolk lecithin.

I had to use crutches and cried in pain everyday. Good luck and always heal yourself naturally xx. Our cultures have lost the ancient wisdoms handed down by mid-wives and natural healers. The accepted medical supporters today regurgitate what they have been taught, much of which is good, other stuff, not so much.

Anything not accepted by Big Pharma and the bought medical system are tossed out as quackery. My mum was killed by the med profession when in hospital when she was not allowed to bring in her magnesium supplements, so I speak from experience, and resentment.

She was simply being assessed at the age of 74, in a hospital suite, for independent living. RiboCein is what we use to increase the natural production of intracellular glutathione and by increasing glutathione gsh inflammation goes down and pain disappears. Usually allergies are a result of less than perfect immune system and this some times can be corrected. The benefits of increasing glutathione production are too many to list here but allergies gone could be one of them.

What about lecithin supplements derived from sunflower seeds? Your article mentions various sources for lecithin, but discusses only soy-derived lecithin. I have a problem with soya and soya products. But what is the reason behind this? The other 30 converts to MSG and describes a handful of negative effects all the way to liver failure… Article is http: By law lecithin sold in the US cannot contain more than 0. The internet is a wonderful thing anyone including me can write it and it becomes fact or truth.

You CB are right about one thing: If they extract 70 percent protein from the soy then it is not 70 that stays in it. This extraction in the article par. I take soy lecithin as a supplement because of the high phosphatidyl serine content. Should I stop taking it? My daughter suffered from severe eczema last year but now it is under control. I have however noticed that eating kinder chocolate or tunacks tea cake she breaks out in a nettle like rash and is very itchy, both these products contain soya leithcin.

She is still young to get an allergy test but was wondering if she has a soya allergy? This is an important issue with women who have estrogen-positive breast cancer. So now another safe way to deliver vitamin C is no longer safe? We were taking the new kind of delivery system by LiveOn Labs, of soy nanobubbles delivering dissolved C straight through the gut into the bloodstream. This is heartbreaking to me, because my cousin has this breast cancer and we both felt it was safe based on several articles and one medical study abstract, but she has developed new tumors in spite of doing everything she can to filter her water, give up processed foods, changing to organic toiletries, and in general reading all labels.

She is off the lipospheric C and now just takes the Ester C. Hello Tess, There is another very effective way to take vitamin C, dissolve the crystals in water with half as much baking soda and after it stops fizzing, drink. Here is a video of Captain Randall the author of Forbidden Healing showing how: I have not seen this, but do wonder how the baking soda helps get it through the gut without breaking down the C.

I will certainly check this out. My husband and I also take the liposomal vitamin c though, we make our own and really like the way it works. I have often wondered whether or not the soy lecithin has an effect on my hormones. It seems when I take it my mood changes. We have, however, used sunflower lecithin as a substitute, but I am not sure that it works as well as soy lecithin. Anyway, just wanted to let you know that there are other lecithins on the market.

After reading about the use of sunflower lecithin in dark chocolate, I am wondering if the amount of sunflower lecithin just needs to be changed in liposomal vitamin c. Please take a look at the research ers associated with grassrootshealth net or carole baggerly.

And check out vitamindcouncil org. Among its uses by different cells of the body: You body may or may not need it in different quantities eg, used up faster when fighting the flu, cancer, etc. A lot of recent US maladies have likely come from the advice of using sunscreen so much rather than get the minutes of midday UVB sunlight needed for health. Some research even shows indoor workers with 3x rate of melanoma than those who work outside less UVB and higher UVA since in part windows filter out UVB so roll down window during the middle day for at least a few minutes if you can.

Please look at the research and try this natural.. It correlates low in people with many types of cancers. Sample Carole quote from skinnymom com: Very, very committed to pursuing primary prevention, especially through the active use of vitamin D. I am not sure that is all you are doing, but you may want to read up on the Gerson Protocol and all other literature that promotes a healthy raw whole-foods diet to help with cancer. Mayo Clinic has a web site that sates no male child should ever be put on soy milk, due to estrogen content.

Also, that any male still wishing to have children should avoid soy, as it will reduce testosterone levels. China and Japan have a long history of high soy consumption and they now have the highest populations. Japan also had among the lowest breast cancer rates in the world until about a decade ago when the birth control pill was made legal. Ergo, it has not increased breast cancer rates in any noticeable way.

Can anyone comment about soy and infertility in men? Lecithin is a major ingredient in Sperm. There seems to be some information out there, that increasing intake of raw eggs or soy lecithin can really increase sperm volume. Would liver also help this? I guess it has Choline but not sure.

Seems like the wise choice would be cage free, good diet, raw eggs in a smoothie perhaps. I mean Soybean oil with show up in a can of water based Tuna! Some Soy products have to be worse than others.

Or using a healthy as i can find Stir Fry sauce. Which is a really tough task. Their all mostly salty MSG crap! If anything, soy increases fertility. Only assumptions based on similarity to estrogren. High intake levels of soy and soy products have been shown to produce or add to your estrogen levels, lowering sperm count and T-levels lots of effects for men.

Normal intake of soy is about 25 grams, but as I get older and my natural ability to produce T decreases, I have reduced the amount of soy intake. For women an increased chance of breast and cervical cancer may exist with high levels of estrogen.

Also bone density will decrease if the levels of T decreases. Just think of T levels being inversely proportional to estrogen levels as a rule of thumb. No, I know both sides of the soy issue and choose to stay away unless it is fermented and then only in moderation.

Soy formula was approved by WIC back in and now those women who were fed soy formula have thyroid issues. Breast cancer rates are ever increasing and girls as young as 7 are starting their periods and developing breasts.

Too much is unknown. Found the article on sugar very enlightening, thank you. Please explain to me if soy protein powder, which I have been taking for years as a supplement, is harmful to me. I assume it is not fermented. I am female aged 75 and I run and lift weights. Thank you Regards Carla.

Even then in moderation. I too wonder who is paying Chris to pass out this mis-information. This goes for Dr. Most times you can simply follow the money to their opinion. So from reading this it seams to me that men should do their best to not consume any soy products or flax seed? I would never consume anything soy especially if it is not Non GMO and or fermented.

Get sunflower lecithin instead. If your child has food allergies ie: My guess is the soy foundation! Soy may not be dangerous for the body but most of it is made with seriously dangerous toxic for the soil, air, water and people living closed by, so for the sake of supporting a better environment, including the people living around, I strongly suggest we all get off soy totally.

Lecithin from sunflower, eggs, liver, pollen, etc. I am a food lover but always make sure what i am putting into my stomach before taking it. I had severe sinus infections for almost 6 years after living in a mold infested house. I tried everything to get rid of them and eventually found one site that suggested Soy Lecithin might be connected to sinus inflammation. I cut it out and the sinus infections stopped.

My father[ageyr] under treatment for moderate to severe dementia of Alzheimer type with both drugs [ mamentine HCL in morning and Donep in night- each 10 mg. And they put it in infant formula. Hi Chris, the great dr Jensen highly recommended soy lecithin.

Are you aware of the studies using flax seed that helped the body metabolize estrogen into the cancer protective metabolites? You stuck to facts and put things in perspective.

An answer to that question could have been the most important part of your article. I would like an answer to that, too. Elevated cholesterol and hypothyroid seem to go hand in hand. What can we do to lower our cholesterol? I found another source that said soy lecithin powder has had the estrogens and other toxic compounds removed but that the granulated form has soybean oil mixed with the powder and does contain some of these compounds.

Is this enough to be concerned about, and why would they add soybean oil to the soy lecithin powder? Soy Lecithin is now commonly used as a mixing emulsifier, especially with chocolate.

I so wish Soy lecithin was taken out of everything and rated as a poison. I might one day be able to live here without being in fear of digesting Soy lecithin. I assume this would also apply to infant formula. Carolyn, from what I can glean, soy lecithin is much higher in phosphatides than sunflower lecithin.

I believe the concerns of the soy source are overblown. According to Carlson Wade, author of Lecithin Book, What You Need to Know, published , the best lecithin is pure lecithin granules which contain over 95 percent phosphatides and about 2 percent soybean oil. Soy formula sets your baby up for thryoid issues, breast cancer and for boys a low sperm count. All the formulas which is given to newborns as well come with soy lecithin as an emulsifier. The two latest comments about soy lecithin are interesting but when mentioning sources of lecithin fail to mention sunflower lecithin: Lecithin has long been used as a health supplement.

Here are some of the benefits: Actually, this article is a better source: I take soy lecithin daily. From day one, I noticed improvement in my short term memory. I am worried a little about the estrogen effect but so far I have no problem. Hi just wanted to weigh in on soy. Being an RD I like to keep up to date with current research and recommendations. This is a great article that talks about soy and cancer risk, which many people are still very afraid of eating any soy, should alleviate some concerns.

Soyfoods and Cancer http: I had so much good cholesterol the doc told me to keep doing whatever the hell I was doing. I stopped taking it due to some research suggesting it would mishape blood cells, but im thinking low dose lecethin supplementation could be a good thing?

Wish I could find a diet like Nutrisystem that used whey-based products and not soy. I am an estrogen-positive breast cancer survivor and am quite overweight, and due to back issues cannot exercise. If anyone is aware of a meals-delivered diet company that has a good concentration of soy-free products, please let me know! I am desperate to get this weight off because I know my chances for survival are much better if I do.

You should take a look at Soylent contrary to the name it is not a Soy based food. It does contain a small amount of Soy Lecithin, but other than that it is primarily made up of Oats, Brown Rice, and Corn. Where do you live? Google and see if there are any companies near you that make fresh paleo meals weekly — these will not have any soy in them. And please know that all calories are not created equal! Eat whole foods, cut out all the processed junk to include soda- diet and regular , and get rid of grains and that will help you get rid of the weight!

Like a couple of other posts I am a breastfeeding mother who is having issues with recurrent blocked milk ducts. Lecithin supplements are recommended to prevent clogged ducts but the advised dosage is mg daily. Would you be able to offer any advice? I tried skimming through all these comments, FIRST, to see if my question was addressed, but I did not see it — so please forgive me if it was discussed already.

What can you, Mr. Kresser tell me about this — and would you please respond to my e-mail? I am very allergic to soy, with a very specific reaction that differs from my other allergies. It has been difficult to find the soy in my diet recently. After looking up one of the E ingredients E , I found that it is lecithin, and most likely soy.

I am certain that this is the source of my recent problems. It angers me to see sources saying that soy lecithin and soy oil do not affect people with soy allergy.

It is also frustrating that most milk products are having soy added to them canned milk and powdered milk. I drink fresh milk, but I like to use stronger milk as a sweetener. Even makeups are switching ingredients to soy. I all of a sudden have a reaction, and find they have changed their formulae.

I have contacted several companies, but unless other people do to, it feels hopeless that things will get safer. Watch what you eat, most animals fed Soy lecithin, have it in their meat and eggs.

I can only eat one egg a day, anymore and I get Soy lecithin sickness. Chris where are your federal based evidence data in this sory?

And China bans direct consumption of GM soy. Although outside the scope of this article, which is health focused, I wanted mention that some people like me avoid soy for policial reasons. There is over production of GMO soy in this country and it is ruining our biodiveristy and putting small farmers organic and non out of business.

Kresser has written about before???? It is not an allergy. I was given two boxes of wonderful sounding tea for Christmas…but with soy lecithin…. Do I avoid them to be safe, or can I enjoy them guilt free? Anyone with thyroid issues should avoid all soy products. You also say, that products have so little amount in them. Please clarify, Thank you. Forget about what the studies so far are telling us, but in terms of the actual compounds or processes themselves, most of them hold some sort of potential health risk.

You say it yourself, soy lecithin appears in all kinds of foods, I know, because I am going out of my way to avoid it, a job which calls for huge determination! I think it is important for spokespeople, representing medical science and industry, to keep in mind that not everyman thralls through the ingredient list to look and see if there are potentially contents that calls for further research before consumption.

After reading all the info I wonder if it is worth the risk since I also have high blood pressure. In fact my oncologist is not freaked out about soy at all really. She said in moderation is fine. Is soy lecithin dangerous for breast cancer survivors? I keep getting mixed information.

My cousin was taking the lipsomal C which is made with non GMO soy lecithin. We talked My Sunflower Oil into making lecithin granules so we could make it at home, but even sunflowers have phytoestrogens. Someone needs to find out the truth about this. No articles or studies out there agree on this issue.

Just want to say that after having severe hives for suddenly for several years I have finally narrowed it down to happening when I eat foods that have soy lecithin. Everything from cheese, chocolate, red vine candy to all kinds of frozen foods…. I generally avoid soy as much as possible except for the small amounts of raw fermented organic soy sauce and soy lecithin in some chocolates.

However, I do eat about tablespoons of whole flax seeds per day. I read somewhere that only ground flax seeds have estrogenic effect on the body and that whole flax seeds are ok to consume. And, what about chia seeds? Do they contain phytoestrogens as well? I am a breastfeeding mama and recently had several clogged ducts.

I was told to take a tablespoon of soy lecithin a day because it thins out the milk without lessening its quality so that its easier to loosen the plug. I took it because I was doing everything possible to avoid mastitis and having to take antibiotics.

Not sure if it made a huge difference but I was able to unclog the ducts and not get an infection. Any idea why it would thin breastmilk? Would you disagree with that? Soy issues are often allergies. It is great that you obviously have no allergies to soy. If you want more sweetness, add a couple of drops of stevia liquid. Easy to remove by pressing a sharp knife down the side. It usually pops up. Sometimes I need to run hot water on the inverted cup for a few seconds; then it pops out.

The article is good but does not provide the meat that I was looking for. If you decide to dig more into it, here are the comments. Soy lecithin, apart from additives, I think it can be a very good supplement for brain function, if and ONLY if, the phospholipids in the lecthin piece are untouched and not getting modified in some way in the chemical process.

Then what amount of phytoestrogens do these lecithin blends contain. Is there any limit? Is there any source to find which supplement not additive contain what amount of phytoestrogens? When the supplements mention, like phosphatidylcholine or Phosphatidylserine, is sourced from Soy lecithin, mg of lecithin contains mg of the above stuff, then what is rest mg?

Is there any way that you can find this information apart from the manufacturer. Supplement market is not regulated by the FDA but it should by some body , so they can make all wild claims that they like but they do not suffer from it. What is the difference between Soy lecithin and Sunflower lecithin, for example? I think, I will stop for time being. Like the way you write your articles though, with scientific proofs but just avoid Life Extension articles style, where they cherry pick their references.

Sorry Aysin but that article did not show why the Japanese live longer than anyone else…… they regularly consume soy…. I had never before heard of soy lecithin. I think the main point here is that the food industry uses too many chemicals and additives in general. We need to eat natural foods like we were meant to! For all of the people that love chocolate and worry about the ingredients, you should learn how to make your own.

Thanks for this informative, balanced information! I really appreciate your level-headed approach to foods that others in the alternative health community might just blindly condemn.

However, I believe constant, irrational food paranoia is almost certainly a major stressor to the body. Hey Chris, just a quick note about gluten-free, cane sugar, and soy-free chocolates: I consume flaxseed for its phytoestrogens and avoid soy for its phytoestrogens, because they are different. On the other hand soy phytoestrogens make an estrogenic effect in body.

I felt like Chris was making a different point about it, maybe someone can explain what was implied more detailed. Please explain if what I do may be bad. I will also be cautious about gmo soy lecithin being used in anything I consider consuming though gmos in human food is forbidden in the country I live in, luckily I do not buy processed foods.

While it is true that the amounts of soy lecithin may be small in chocolate, I think we need to apply more pressure to the food industry to eliminate soy additives from our food. And it is more than just about personal health. We need to focus on the larger picture of what soy production is doing to the environment and to the health of those other than ourselves.

Their fair-trade organic line appears to have disappeared. I read recently that the greater portion of the soy in products here in the United States is grown and processed in China. There are no standards in China to regulate whether they use GMO seeds or the manner with which they process the soybeans. How much of this is true? Okay for some but not for me. Someone looked at the ingredients and saw it has soy lecithan as an ingredient.

Thank you for your balanced approach once again to diet and supplements with excellent scientific support. Although a direct link to heart attack has not been made, researchers recently showed that intake of phosphatidylcholine, a major component of lecithin, temporarily raises blood levels of the compound TMAO. TMAO is produced from the choline in phosphatidylcholine by the actions of microbes in the gut and enzymes in the liver.

TMAO appears to advance atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries by reducing the normal clearing of cholesterol. Chris actually addressed that exact study in a previous article! The chocolate you recommend has a fair amount of sugar, as do most of the others recommended here. I gave up on commercial chocolates, almost all are cooked for days and are sweetened with sugar. I used to eat a fair amount of dark chocolate and it would make me break out and not feel good.

Could you explain then why Japanese women and men live longer than anyone else in the world and regularly consume soy? Why yes, Jane, Chris did actually address this very question recently: He eats no soy products, not even lecithin.

If he has even minute amounts of soy lecithin, his symptoms of facial redness, digestive problems, and insomnia start up again. He has no reaction to sunflower lecithin. My 2 chocolate cents: Chocolate eaters — try Lindt Excellence! I do get a headache but it must be the cocoa itself causing it, not soya in this instance. Thank you for posting about the soy lechithin. I always find your insights on these matters valuable.

A distinctive approach with logic and intent to provide a level headed solution is a worthwhile endeavor! I have found myself reflecting many times on your work and have applied many changes in my famiies life and health based on your perspective! So many thanks are in order.

Which lead me back yet to you once again today, regarding the phosphlipids. Particularly with the Vit C combo with phospholipids for my husband who suffered a heart attack in Aug at the tender age of 43 last year! Long story and journney since then. He is no longer type 2 diabetic and would have to contribute that fact much to you!

However he is still struggling with arterial plaques requiring stent placements. I suspect its the vitamin C, just my gut feeling considering his cholesterol levels should not warrant the continuing blockages forming. Also, he was on metoprolol which the diabetic journals had an article outlining that is evident that this bp med actually worsens arterial plaques! So, am hoping that was our nasty coulperate! Trying to ensure we enable his body to heal! I can no longer look at a plate of food and just see food, I see a combination of potentially benefical nutrients and or potentially chemical laden, nutrient robbing toxins!

Often feel like the mad scientist preparing smoothies and meals for targeted nutrition! All this has taught me so much and thanks to your work, enabling me to make strategic choices!

My thoughts were this though, Regarding the Phospholipids and vit C…. I know that coconut oil facilitates absorption of just about anything good or bad! But could it be that the the MCT can also be a suitable form of phospholipids with the Vitamin C as well?

Thanks for any input you may have to offer! I avoid all soy as much as possible and also avoid soy lecithin as much as possible. I have to make my own chocolates with coconut oil to get my fix. I take sunflower lecithin due to the lack of a gall bladder. I know soy inhibits thyroid hormones. Does soy lecithin inhibit them as well? Just to weigh in on the chocolate issue. It is my absolute favorite chocolate. I take no money from them or anyone else to promote this chocolate. Thanks for all the research you do.

You bring some sanity to a world filled with hype and headlines. I had read somewhere several years ago that Stevia also can effect hormones. But have not been able to find that article. Do you know anything about that? Or was that just an advertising scare from the sugar company to keep people from buying and using Stevia as a sweetener.

I enjoy reading most of what you write. I get this question a lot from my patients and you did a great job summarizing the major concerns and questions. Is there another you would recommend if a pt just wanted to check for soy? You are spreading half truths. How much did it cost to buy you off?? My recommendations have always been evidence based. I dislike hysterical web claims that are based only on hearsay and lead to unnecessary stress and overly restrictive approaches to diet and supplements.

Show me credible, peer-reviewed evidence that contradicts anything written in any of these articles, and we can have a real discussion. Chris, thank you for being one of the most level-headed figures in the paleo community.

And the lashing out at others like the above commentator just shows the immaturity. But regardless, thanks so posting relevant posts and sticking to the facts. You understand methodology and view research critically. I think the above criticism is misguided. I hope Silas will continue to come to your website and at some point realize that you are true to the science. I did not check if there were studies from countries that forbid gmos in human food such as EU countries….

Chris — This response of yours has won you a follower in me, to replace of the paranoid nutrition-purist who thinks the radioactive fish lobby and pro-GMO lobby paid you off.

Are there safer brands than others for those of us who use it for liposomal solutions, homemade chocolates, an other stuff? I appreciate the article. Thanks Chris, I am always stressing about products containing any kind of soy. And the same for Europe. GMO are completely and explicitly forbidden in organic agriculture.

I wonder why this strange rumor keeps on popping up. For the cost I can buy one without the crappy fillers so why would I settle? The standards have been relaxed and the government is trying to relax them further — by ruining organic altogether it seems. Anyway, there are youtube videos showing how, but you really can make your own chocolate with honey, cacao cocoa powder, and cocoa butter.

You can even flavor your treats with organic essential oils such as cinnamon, orange, peppermint my favorite etc. Personally, I think it sucks. Rather eat less and pay more a fair price than eat a more processed and fragmented product with inferior substances. As for soy lecithin: I cannot tolerate it, whereas little amounts of soy sauce or tofu are no problem.

During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. Actual dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period. When building dens, females make use of natural shelters such as fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation.

Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade. On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with 1—3 openings. The odour of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds such as magpies and ravens. As there are few convenient places for burrows, wolf dens are usually occupied by animals of the same family.

Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles , paved roads and railways. Although wolves primarily feed on medium to large sized ungulates , they are not fussy eaters.

Smaller sized animals that may supplement the diet of wolves include marmots , hares , badgers , foxes , weasels , ground squirrels , mice , hamsters , voles and other rodents , as well as insectivores. They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs. When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards , snakes , frogs , rarely toads and large insects as available. In times of scarcity, wolves readily eat carrion , visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses.

In Eurasia, many gray wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose , red deer , roe deer and wild boar are still the most important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe. Other prey species include reindeer , argali , mouflon , wisent , saiga , ibex , chamois , wild goats , fallow deer and musk deer.

Animals preferred as prey by North American wolves include moose, white-tailed deer , elk , mule deer , bighorn sheep , Dall's sheep , American bison , muskox and caribou. Wolves supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter. They willingly eat the berries of mountain ash , lily of the valley , bilberries , blueberries and cowberry.

Other fruits include nightshade , apples and pears. They readily visit melon fields during the summer months. Gray wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur. In North America, incidents of gray wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills.

Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites. Both species kill each other's young. Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to only eat young wolves.

The majority of black bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico. Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions to actively seek out black bears in their dens and kill them without eating them. Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills. Wolves may encounter striped hyenas in Israel, Central Asia and India, usually in disputes over carcasses.

Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them, [] but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas.

Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium-sized felines. Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges. Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting on different elevations. In winter, however, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely.

Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal kills. They have been reported killing mothers and their kittens. Wolves may kill lynxes by running them down, or killing them before they can escape into trees. Leftovers of wolf kills are sometimes scavenged by wolverines.

Wolverines usually wait until the wolves are done feeding, but have been known to drive away wolves from kills. However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines. Other than humans, tigers appear to be the only serious predators of wolves. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases tiger numbers.

Proven cases of tigers killing wolves are rare and attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature, with at least four proven records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.

However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one third, because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans. Wolf population declines have been arrested since the s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities. Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species.

Despite these threats, because of the gray wolf's relatively widespread range and stable population, it is classified as least concern by the IUCN. Although wolf-dog hybridization in Europe has raised concern among conservation groups fearing for the gray wolf's purity, genetic tests show that introgression of dog genes into European gray wolf populations does not pose a significant threat.

Also, as wolf and dog mating seasons do not fully coincide, the likelihood of wild wolves and dogs mating and producing surviving offspring is small. The extermination of Northern Europe 's wolves first became an organized effort during the Middle Ages , and continued until the late 19th century. In England , wolf persecution was enforced by legislation , and the last wolf was killed in the early sixteenth century during the reign of Henry VII.

Wolves lasted longer in Scotland , where they sheltered in vast tracts of forest, which were subsequently burned down. Wolves managed to survive in the forests of Braemar and Sutherland until The extirpation of wolves in Ireland followed a similar course, with the last wolf believed to have been killed in The Sami extirpated wolves in northern Sweden in organized drives.

By , few wolves remained in Sweden, because of the use of snowmobiles in hunting them, with the last specimen being killed in The gray wolf was exterminated in Denmark in and Norway's last wolf was killed in The species was decimated in 20th century Finland, despite regular dispersals from Russia. The gray wolf was only present in the eastern and northern parts of Finland by , though its numbers increased after World War II. In Central Europe , wolves were dramatically reduced in number during the early nineteenth century, because of organized hunts and reductions in ungulate populations.

In Bavaria , the last wolf was killed in , and had disappeared from the Rhine regions by Today, wolves have returned to the area. The louveterie was abolished after the French Revolution in , but was re-established in In , up to 1, wolves were killed, with many more by poison. In Eastern Europe , wolves were never fully exterminated, because of the area's contiguity with Asia and its large forested areas. However, Eastern European wolf populations were reduced to very low numbers by the late nineteenth century.

Wolves were extirpated in Slovakia during the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the mid-twentieth century, could only be found in a few forested areas in eastern Poland. Wolves in the eastern Balkans benefitted from the region's contiguity with the former Soviet Union and large areas of plains, mountains and farmlands.

Wolves in Hungary occurred in only half the country around the start of the 20th century, and were largely restricted to the Carpathian Basin. Wolf populations in Romania remained largely substantial, with an average of 2, wolves being killed annually out of a population of 4, from — An all-time low was reached in , when the population was reduced to 1, animals. The extermination of wolves in Bulgaria was relatively recent, as a previous population of about 1, animals in was reduced to about — in In Greece, the species disappeared from the southern Peloponnese in Despite periods of intense hunting during the eighteenth century, wolves never disappeared in the western Balkans, from Albania to the former Yugoslavia.

In Southern Europe , wolf extermination was not as complete as in Northern Europe, because of greater cultural tolerance of the species. Wolf populations only began declining in the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th-century, and was reduced by a half of its original size by Wolf bounties were regularly paid in Italy as late as The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.

By the s, small and isolated wolf populations expanded in the wake of decreased human density in rural areas and the recovery of wild prey populations. The gray wolf has been fully protected in Italy since , and now holds a population of over 1,, By the wolves in the Western Alps imposed a significant burden on traditional sheep and goat husbandry with a loss of over 5, animals in In Spain , the species occurs in Galicia , Leon , and Asturias.

Although hundreds of Iberian wolves are illegally killed annually, the population has expanded south across the river Duero and east to the Asturias and Pyrenees Mountains. In , wolves began recolonising central Sweden after a twelve-year absence, and have since expanded into southern Norway.

As of , the total number of Swedish and Norwegian wolves is estimated to be at least one hundred, including eleven breeding pairs. The gray wolf is fully protected in Sweden and partially controlled in Norway. The Scandinavian wolf populations owe their continued existence to neighbouring Finland's contiguity with the Republic of Karelia , which houses a large population of wolves.

Furthermore, the decline in the moose populations has reduced the wolf's food supply. Wolf populations in Poland have increased to about — individuals since being classified as a game species in Poland plays a fundamental role in providing routes of expansion into neighbouring Central European countries. In the east, its range overlaps with populations in Lithuania, Belarus , Ukraine , and Slovakia. A population in western Poland expanded into eastern Germany and in the first pups were born on German territory.

A few Slovakian wolves disperse into the Czech Republic, where they are afforded full protection. Wolves in Slovakia, Ukraine and Croatia may disperse into Hungary, where the lack of cover hinders the buildup of an autonomous population. Although wolves have special status in Hungary, they may be hunted with a year-round permit if they cause problems. Romania has a large population of wolves, numbering 2, animals. The wolf has been a protected animal in Romania since , although the law is not enforced.

The number of wolves in Albania and Macedonia is largely unknown, despite the importance the two countries have in linking wolf populations from Greece to those of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Although protected, sometimes wolves are still illegally killed in Greece, and their future is uncertain.

Wolf numbers have declined in Bosnia and Herzegovina since , while the species is fully protected in neighbouring Croatia and Slovenia. During the 19th century, gray wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River. However, they decreased considerably in number between and , largely because of persecution by farmers.

Soviet wolf populations reached a low around , disappearing over much of European Russia. The population increased again by to about 75,, with 32, being killed in By the s, wolf extermination remained a priority in the NWP and Awadh. Overall, over , wolves were killed for bounties in British India between and The wolf was deemed a threat to ranching, which the Meiji government promoted at the time, and targeted via a bounty system and a direct chemical extermination campaign inspired by the similar contemporary American campaign.

The last Japanese wolf was a male killed on January 23, near Washikaguchi now called Higashi Yoshiro. Japanese wolves likely underwent a process of island dwarfism 7,—13, years ago in response to these climatological and ecological pressures. There is little reliable data on the status of wolves in the Middle East , save for those in Israel and Saudi Arabia , though their numbers appear to be stable, and are likely to remain so.

Israel's conservation policies and effective law enforcement maintain a moderately sized wolf population, which radiates into neighbouring countries, while Saudi Arabia has vast tracts of desert, where about — wolves live undisturbed. The mountains of Turkey have served as a refuge for the few wolves remaining in Syria.

A small wolf population occurs in the Golan Heights , and is well protected by the military activities there. Wolves living in the southern Negev desert are contiguous with populations living in the Egyptian Sinai and Jordan. Throughout the Middle East, the species is only protected in Israel. Elsewhere, it can be hunted year-round by Bedouins. Little is known of current wolf populations in Iran, which once occurred throughout the country in low densities during the mids. The northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for the wolf.

Overall, India supports about , wolves, scattered among several remnant populations. Although protected since , Indian wolves are classed as endangered, with many populations lingering in low numbers or living in areas increasingly used by humans. Although present in Nepal and Bhutan , there is no information of wolves occurring there. Wolf populations throughout Northern and Central Asia are largely unknown, but are estimated in the hundreds of thousands based on annual harvests.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union , continent-wide extermination of wolves has ceased, and wolf populations have increased to about 25,—30, animals throughout the former Soviet Union. In China and Mongolia , wolves are only protected in reserves. Mongolian populations have been estimated at 10,—30,, while the status of wolves in China is more fragmentary. The north has a declining population of an estimated wolves, while Xinjiang and Tibet hold about 10, and 2, respectively.

It exists in southern China, which refutes claims made by some researchers in the Western world that the wolf had never existed in southern China. It occurred all over the mainland, save for the southeastern United States, California west of the Sierra Nevada , and the tropical and subtropical areas of Mexico. Large continental islands occupied by wolves included Newfoundland , Vancouver Island , southeastern Alaskan islands, and throughout the Arctic Archipelago and Greenland.

In his November 6, letter to the French Minister of the Marine, Louis Denys de La Ronde reported that the island was home to wolves "of a prodigious size", and sent a wolf pelt back to France to substantiate his claim.

As the island was cleared for settlement, the gray wolf population may have been extirpated, or relocated to the mainland across the winter ice: The decline of North American wolf populations coincided with increasing human populations and the expansion of agriculture.

By the start of the 20th century, the species had almost disappeared from the eastern USA, excepting some areas of the Appalachians and the northwestern Great Lakes Region. In Canada, the gray wolf was extirpated in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between and , and in Newfoundland around It vanished from the southern regions of Quebec and Ontario between and The gray wolf's decline in the prairies began with the extermination of the American bison and other ungulates in the s—70s.

From —, the gray wolf was virtually eliminated from the western USA and adjoining parts of Canada, because of intensive predator control programs aimed at eradicating the species. The gray wolf was exterminated by federal and state governments from all of the USA by , except in Alaska and northern Minnesota.

The decline in North American wolf populations was reversed from the s to the early s, particularly in southwestern Canada, because of expanding ungulate populations resulting from improved regulation of big game hunting. This increase triggered a resumption of wolf control in western and northern Canada.

Thousands of wolves were killed from the early s to the early s, mostly by poisoning. This campaign was halted and wolf populations increased again by the mids. The species' modern range in North America is mostly confined to Alaska and Canada, with populations also occurring in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin and Michigan 's Upper Peninsula , and small portions of Washington , Idaho , northern Oregon , and Montana. A functional wolf population should exist in California by according to estimates by state wildlife officials.

In addition, the Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi was reintroduced to Arizona and New Mexico in Canada is home to about 52,—60, wolves, whose legal status varies according to province and territory. First Nations residents may hunt wolves without restriction, and some provinces require licenses for residents to hunt wolves while others do not. In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist.

In Alaska, the gray wolf population is estimated at 6,—7,, and can be legally harvested during hunting and trapping seasons, with bag limits and other restrictions. As of , there are wolves in 28 packs in Yellowstone, and wolves in 25 packs in Idaho. Reintroduced Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico are protected under the ESA and, as of late , number 28 individuals in eight packs.

Viral diseases carried by wolves include rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , and canine coronavirus. Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, with most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals. Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.

Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it. Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely doesn't cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviors. The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, with infections being most prevalent in winter months.

Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include brucellosis , lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis , [] listeriosis , anthrax and foot and mouth disease.

While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to have any significant effect on wolf populations.

Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death. Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste. Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have once killed two wolf pups in Canada.

Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites , with wolves in the former Soviet Union having been recorded to carry at least 50 species. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock.

Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite , [] though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes. Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis. Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms. Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.

Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but harms it little. Metorchis conjunctus , which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease , inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation. Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs. Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon.

Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.

Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.

What Is Isagenix?