Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
In reinventing money transfers, M-Pesa and its ilk offer more than a new way to pay - they are opportunity engines, offering the ability to build credit in a world that previously shut them out. However, the estimates of fiber intake are highly variable. Establishing consistent laboratory methodologies, laboratory training, emergency preparedness training and procedures, database development, further assistance for developing countries, and strengthened communication networks are key strategies to advance the status of international food-borne disease surveillance. We decide what should be done, governments are our elected servants, to run society the way we want, and not the other way around as it is today; by puppet leaders and unelected officials that act as a dictator. Wake up readers to the fact that right now the U. Sanctorius measured body weight.
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The War Has Gone Hot! Thirteen centuries of élite-led misinformation are soon coming to an end. Disclosure means light and change for the healing of mankind and our planet.
There is a good probability that the bulk of major changes will be disclosed in an avalanche of unexpected news-shocks, simultaneously from multiple sources, likely beginning in Asia or Switzerland. And that will be the beginning of a new era in history people are going to witness; it is the first major change on this planet since Atlantis sank about 12, years ago. Soon people, inside and outside governments, will commence to speak the truth with greater energy and clarity, with less fear than ever before in human history.
And their words will be heard, preserved and multiplied beyond the reach of Khazarian suppression. Many things will become unobstructed, seeing the world in a different light, unlocking the truths mankind has been deceived. Remember; Humanity is greater than politics , and shall conquer.
Many historic facts will come under scrutiny for finding the true truth. Like how tsunamis, freak weather conditions and earthquakes in Japan, Central America and Haiti have been deliberately man-made by covert government agencies.
The fate of thousands of missing children worldwide will become known. Stopping the global warming hoax or climate change charades for deliberate environmental destruction, ending poverty, ending war, eliminating disease and subsequently restoring the planet to full health.
Understanding the intentional bioterrorism like food-poisoning, GMO, chemtrails, etc. The nation in the BRICS alliance, led by China, Russia, Brazil, India, and South Africa, will become central in facilitating truthful global news flows, necessary for the introduction of new asset-backed international currencies.
Accelerating leaked testimonials and whistleblowing by making remedies more effective and more patriotic that also shall change Western scientific attitudes, banking, security and military cultures.
Further important disclosures are expected about endemic professional corruption in Western healthcare systems. Pharmaceutical medicine will be shown to be a manipulative tool, designed by the corporate controllers to make people sick. In most cases prescribed medications are unnecessary, likewise intrusive surgery, which makes even more expensive medicines necessary.
When the money is followed it becomes obvious why attempts to suppress or outlaw alternative herbal remedies have been implemented that work better and cost less. More information about The Ritalin Conspiracy, and about the Statin Scam that inhibit the production of cholesterol very effectively, but cholesterol is good for the body. As cholesterol is not the cause of heart disease, so actually there is NO problem. Statins are good for doctors but bad for patients. The name of this game is; Hypercholesterolemia, which requires the services of doctors to detect its presence.
Doctors that became the sales representatives for the drugs industry. Drugs that make money for the invisible RKM sitting at the top of the pharmaceutical industry. A new international blockchain payment system will evolve for the transfer of new gold backed international currencies, making market manipulation and paper derivatives an impossibility.
International Gold Backed Currency: Almost all of the real gold in the world is now in the hands of positive allies. The plan is to stop the upcoming US presidential election, intel sources say. With the purpose to eliminate the Khazarian presidential candidate Hillary Clinton who is nearing her indictment, as prosecutors move in on her, while Obama is forced to stop her protection, and likely being impeached.
As Benjamin Fulford reports:. What important is to know, is that the WDS and its allies have identified the names and locations of all the top members of this ruling Khazarian bloodline and have the technical capability of removing them from this world. Doing so would be the very last option the WDS would take and it would only happen if it became necessary to do so to prevent genocide.
The point though is that the families that currently control the G7 and the UN corporation are no longer in any position to dictate to the world. Their financial system, the source of their power, is now based almost entirely on fraud. This mafia gang was taken over by the Bauer family of Banksters who changed their name to Rothschild.
The use of human clones in managing European Royal families, international banking, spiritual fascism in religion, industrial militarism and political assassinations will be made clear for all to see. Why should élite, unelected, unappointed, unqualified bloodlines have privileged access to vast invisible influence and wealth? As their vast capital is revealed, held in multiple off-ledger black screen accounts of stolen and hidden monies grown into thousands of quadrillions.
A whole range of dirty tricks will become known to the public, like the backgrounds of the Greek disaster that purposely has been created, as a test case for further pilfering of the EU continent and the Americas.
Here an expose to show the working:. Neoliberalism intends to reestablish feudalism — a few robber barons and many serfs: The One Percent and the 99 percent. In other words, Greece is now being destroyed by the EU that it so foolishly joined and trusted. The same thing is happening to Portugal and is also underway in Spain, France, and Italy. The looting has already taken place in Ireland, Latvia, a number of African-, and Latin American- countries, and is underway in Ukraine.
All this shows why all countries in the world are experiencing financial turmoil, which is important to understand. The smiling puppet leaders are the least concerned about the fate of their countrymen. All developed countries with debt will culminate into a situation that now is being experienced by Greece. The whole system is broken and severely damaged. The world has entered the looting stage of capitalism.
Misery and Despair will be the result. But now the truth is out, an entirely different approach is necessary. And pass on this message by forwarding it to all your contacts with your personal motivation, to read it, and similarly forward it to their contacts. Take the attitude, as what de Russian President Putin says about the Rothschilds:. It is time to fundamentally change the managing of our society.
A Swiss like Canton structure where locals decide about their own future is a good example for the change of governing. The money creation must be in the hands of the people and not in privately owned central bank institutions.
We the people are the owners of this planet. We decide what should be done, governments are our elected servants, to run society the way we want, and not the other way around as it is today; by puppet leaders and unelected officials that act as a dictator. NOW is the time for action. Change is on the Horizon: Those of us who get the news from alternative reliable sources have known this for years.
So hopefully it is clear and well-explained that the truth is out and urgency and duty have arrived for all the people to come into action in making the necessary changes. For the sake of the people on this planet we pray that Neil regains his strength and finally achieves his goal. This is what the world needs, a winner; and a winning outcome.
Just as with Sandy Hook, there have been no bodies produced - no evidence to back any claims made. As not a single one of my several hundred thousand readers of this [ paucraigroberts. In the URL below is an account that is likely overall correct. So many skeptics do this that it makes you wonder: A number of questionable aspects regarding this shooting include: The FBI knew about the shooter and investigated him prior to the attack.
The shooter had a connection to a known ISIS recruiter. According to mainstream reports, Mateen carried an AR rifle and a handgun into the Pulse club around 2 a. A stand-off ensued which lasted for about 3 hours before a SWAT team crashed into the building with an armored vehicle and killed Mateen. There was a distinct lack of dead bodies and bloodied 'survivors'.
Mateen was an American citizen born to Afghan parents from Port St. Lucie, Florida, about a miles away from Orlando, a distance which he allegedly drove to commit the attack. What may at first sound like an instance of senseless violence, brings with it a number of other questions. For instance, the FBI was already well aware of Mateen and his connections to radical jihad and terrorism. The investigations were reported by a number of mainstream media organizations and later confirmed by the FBI itself during a press conference.
The FBI admitted that Mateen had been interviewed by agents twice in due to comments made about radical jihad which were overheard by coworkers. Salha allegedly returned to Syria and blew himself up in a suicide bombing. Seddique has denounced the Pakistani government and expressed support and encouragement for the Taliban movement. A connection to any one of these organizations and institutions may go some length in explaining how the attack was coordinated, the motivation of the perpetrators, the actual involvement or not of the suspects, and who actually directed the operation.
In many instances, connections to certain military agencies and communities should serve as the same red flag as connections to intelligence agencies since these institutions have largely been blended together. Indeed, the FBI has had a long history in creating, organizing and facilitating terrorist attacks in order to bust them at the last minute and claim credit for stopping terror attacks. The FBI also has a long history of investigating, monitoring and interviewing suspects of high-profile terrorist attacks before those attacks were committed but doing nothing about them.
At that point, he started making shopping lists for weapons. Also included in the affidavit is the same hysterical rhetoric encouraged by FBI informants now evident in the recent actions of terror suspect Omar Mateen in Florida. The FBI literally provided a mentally-ill man they helped plan a terrorist attack together with, an arsenal of deadly weapons — arresting him just before he committed his crime. The only factor that prevented the entrapment of Ciccolo from becoming a live Florida shooting-style attack was the fact that the FBI arrested Ciccolo before he carried out his planned attack — while those following Mateen did not arrest him.
The role of the FBI in Mateen obtaining his weapons will never be known since Mateen is now — conveniently — dead. Lastly, one immensely important question must be asked: For many, claims that the attacker belongs to ISIS is a deal breaker.
For these individuals, ISIS is a shadowy terrorist organization that supports itself and has created a caliphate in eastern Syria and western Iraq that can scarcely be defeated except when the Russians bomb it. However, the facts do not support such a shallow understanding of the ISIS terrorist organization. Its actions have been coordinated by the Anglo-American Intelligence apparatus for geopolitical purposes all across the world both at home and abroad. For this reason, the declaration that ISIS committed a terrorist attack in Paris is by no means a get-out-of-jail-free card for the Western Intelligence apparatus.
Instead, it is the trademark of their handiwork. Please see these articles for more information on the nature of ISIS: While the right-wing media blames Muslims and the left-wing media blame guns, perhaps it would be more effective if thinking individuals would examine the possibilities that this attack was a false flag incident designed to push an agenda that would benefit those in power in some way or other.
Out of this attack we will no doubt see another push for the evisceration of the Second Amendment and other civil liberties as well as increased hype regarding ISIS as a threat to the American way of life and a greater attempt at justification for foreign adventures.
It is they who control ISIS and they who bear the responsibility for its actions. The sheer volume of information coming out and articles being written is voluminous and far too much to be worked into one article. Below is just a sampling that provides a much larger picture of what has really been going on. Some are more perceptive than others Is Orlando a False Flag? It also said work was well under way to consider whether the existing Light Armoured Vehicles might be modernised, or replaced.
The plan allows for the replacement or review of the Defence Force's aircraft, frigates and Light Armoured Vehicles While New Zealand did not face the prospect of an imminent military attack, there were growing threats as a result of failing states and pressure on food and water resources, the paper said. Prime Minister John Key said the new policy was being launched at a time of "increasing uncertainty and instability in the international environment".
New Zealand needs a defence force than can protect New Zealand and also contribute to international security and stability," he said. Cyber security was also identified as a major new risk, and a new defence cyber support network would be developed. More intelligence personnel would be hired to help analyse and distribute information collected from surveillance. The paper noted demand for disaster relief and and recovery efforts in the South Pacific would increase in coming decades.
The White Paper noted increasing reliance on technology and information was creating "new vulnerabilities". The threat to systems relying on networked technologies had increased "markedly" since , it said. Defence Minister Gerry Brownlee would not give specific details about the resourcing for the boosted cyber security system, as that had not yet been determined.
Defence Minister Gerry Brownlee also spoke at the paper's presentation. Mr Brownlee said cyber weapons were now significant, as evidenced by the reliance of individuals on a multitude of technologies. So it's a much wider concept than just saying it's to protect, or it's to attack - we need to know what other people are up to, particularly in a military sense. When asked how closely the Government Communications Security Bureau would be involved, Mr Brownlee said there would be a "high level of co-operation".
Maritime Threats and Illegal Fishing. As activity in New Zealand's waters increased, the White Paper warned incidents that required a New Zealand response were more likely to occur.
It said the size, intrinsic value and challenges associated with managing the country's large maritime domain underlined the significance of maritime threats to New Zealand.
New Zealand had a direct interest in the stability of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, including its preservation, and the Defence Force must continue to monitor illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing, the paper said. Similarly throughout the Pacific when you have unregulated fishing in some of our Pacific neighbours, that is also an attack on their economy and comes at a cost to us and our partner nations," Mr Brownlee said.
Over half of the country's maritime trade passed through the South China Sea, and the paper predicted that, over the coming decades, it was likely to remain a contested environment. There would be serious implications for trade routes, and New Zealand's ability to service markets, should major instability occur in the region, it said. Defence White Paper Mr Key said the money would have to be appropriated through the normal budget process. Secondly, there is some that can be funded through their depreciation allowance but over time, future budgets will have to make bigger allowances, both capital and operating, for Defence's capability.
The United States nuclear powered warship Texas arrives in New Zealand, in August The response of Auckland Peace Action is that it is not okay for any warships from anywhere to come to New Zealand, nuclear-armed or not. The aspirations of the nuclear-free movement of the s and s did not come from a selfish desire to be safe from nuclear war and fallout. It was a powerful political movement that demanded a different kind of world: What Nicky Hager failed to mention and what people need to know today about the proposed visit of some 30 navies including the US Navy is that this event, billed as a "celebration", is part of an enormous arms fair sponsored by the world's largest weapons manufacturers - including nuclear weapons makers - and a military recruiting and public-relations campaign that will involve New Zealand in future wars.
The nuclear-free legislation isn't threatened; it has just been sidelined. The week of events planned for Auckland in November is sponsored by many companies who directly profit from war, including Lockheed Martin, Thales, Babcock, ThyssenKrupp, and Cubic Defence all in the top list of international arms companies , along with the NZ Defence Industry Association, itself an industry trade promotion group consisting of another odd members involved in weapons and military-related production.
Lockheed Martin is the world's largest weapons manufacturer and supplier to such regimes as Saudi Arabia, a country that today stands accused of using these very weapons to commit war crimes. Lockheed Martin is the principle sponsor and more than delegates and weapons company representatives are expected.
Here, military men can make deals to buy all the naval hardware and other weaponry on display. This enormous injection of cash into the military is happening despite the NZDF's own evidence that "the country does not face a direct military threat in the foreseeable future". The NZDF and those who support New Zealand's involvement in US wars, however, clearly do see a threat - a threat to their public support and, thus, continued operations.
This is the real reason behind the Navy's 75th birthday. Their "celebration" is a stage-managed marketing event to secure public support for future wars, ever-increasing budgets and the recruitment of young men and women to fight and die. The Navy says so itself: The New Zealand military has been continuously at war in Afghanistan alongside the US for 15 years; it is conducting regular training with the US Marine Corp, and it participates in the largest maritime war exercises in the world, the US-led Rimpac.
Instead of leading us to complacency because the Nuclear-Free Act is still intact, Hager could have taken the opportunity to encourage a redoubling of the efforts of the thousands of people who worked to make New Zealand nuclear-free and the necessity of expanding that position. That movement was brave, capable and courageous 30 years ago. It is a movement to truly celebrate, but its work remains unfinished. It is that work that is now urgently necessary. On an Animal Communication workshop it is explained that everyone can communicate with animals, we have all just forgotten how.
They teach you that interspecies communication is done via energy so language is never a barrier. Sometimes they will communicate through words, or sensation, or through images displayed in your mind. Tell them how much you love them and ask them if would they like to communicate with you. And remember to say please and thank you, animals apprectiate good manners. My animal guest teacher was a Staffordshire Bullterrier called Oscar. He came into a calm room of thirty seated students, all eager to be able to communicate with this beautiful creature.
His guardian not owner, we are merely guardians to our pets sat on a seat next to the teacher, whilst Oscar went around the room sniffing everybody, tail wagging. He then went and settled on the rug in the middle of the room.
I got two out of the four questions asked correct according to the answers the teacher received. She went through all the answers everybody got and then shared the answers that she had received. Later that day I was partnered up for another exercise with a young woman who also lived with Oscar, who had been accompanied by him in bed the night previous. I asked her, when you went to bed last night with Oscar, how were you feeling? From that moment on I knew that animal communication is subjective.
The afternoon consisted of a cat guest teacher called Marmalade who headed straight for a woman who was terrified of cats and sat on her for the rest of his session, attempting to cure her of her fear. Sadly, his efforts were lost. We did the same routine, asking Marmalade questions that his guardian could verify.
Afterwards, we worked with photographs of our beloved pets. How does that even work? Surely that is not possible but I found myself communicating perfectly accurately with Shoshy the cat via her photograph, using language that was completely alien to my usual syntax.
It was a bizarre experience! My first was a Hunter horse named Nick who was having problems with repetitive lameness. I told the guardian not to tell me which leg was affected as asking a question that can be confirmed by them is evidence to you and them that you are indeed in interspecies communication.
Then after a moment, he drew my attention to his back left foot. I asked him did it hurt and suddenly I had a stabbing pain in my left foot on the underneath. I am happy to report Nick is now on glucosomine supplements and his problem is now relieved. The next communication was with a dressage horse called Zodie. Her guardian is a gentle, beautiful young woman who teaches children to ride and does dressage competitions for fun.
I like this person a lot and she is very fond of her animals. The evening before I had read from cover to cover, the book my teacher had written on animal communication.
I went armed with some Maltesers, just in case I could bribe the horse into communicating with me. Her guardian told me when she and Zodie praticed dressage the horse was infallible but whenever they were in competetive situations the horse had awful meltdowns. Off I went to communicate with Zodie who was in an enclosure with two other horses where she was able to roam free and the others were stabled.
I entered their enclosure and introduced myself telepathically to Zodie, asking if she would like to communicate with me. She took one look at me and promptly walked off and hid in a stable! Zodie popped her head out the stable inquisitively, and decided to come over and investigate the rustle of the sweet wrapper.
I asked Zodie if she hurt anywhere and she showed me in my body a sensation of tightness on her right side flank and down the leg. I then asked her what was going wrong in her competions?
I was immediately overwhelmed by the sensation of fear and nervousness, I was trembling all over and not able to catch my breath. I explained that Vicks just wanted to do the competitions for fun, it did not matter whether they won or not, they are just there to enjoy themselves. When I told Vicks she wept, as did I.
Animals are our greatest teachers in every way, when I have found it impossible to communicate they patiently show me how. I have predominantly had dogs and horses in my life. Dogs are my greatest love and proved the most difficult for me to access telepathically.
But they always patiently teach me what I need to learn. For me at least, it works better most times if I communicate with dogs through images. For example, Terry the Terrier was my best animal friend when I learned this amazing skill, but I could not communicate in the ways I found so easy with cats, horses, even insects!
I was feeling very sorry for myself with my female cycle one day, and I knew that animals are able to heal us. So I was lying on my bed in agony with Terry looking at me curiously. Then I closed my eyes and imagined or I- magiced Terry lying on my belly facing me, and imagined what that would look like from his perspective.
He jumped up on the bed and lay down on my body facing me. Within minutes my pain had subsided and I had learned my biggest lesson so far.
On another similar painful occasion I was cat-sitting and up in the middle of the night. I explained to one of the cats I was in pain and she promptly jumped on my lap and starting pawing at my belly arduously. The pain was cured in a matter of minutes. I went to the 4, acre estate for an interview and met the Countess and her daughter and the five dogs.
The dogs were really hectic with very few manners but all completely adorable. I was asked to sit down at the kitchen table and have coffee with my prospective new boss. I suddenly was drawn to looking behind me and saw the tiny Jack Russell Terrier who was sat staring at me next to the warm aga oven. Her eyes grew wide and her jaw slackened with shock.
On many occasions I would walk another three dogs with the pack, just me and eight dogs spending whole days outside connecting with each other, and all in connection with the Planetary Animal Mother, Gaia Sophia.
I have even communicated with plants. I stood before a large group of nettles and asked them which nettle top I could take to cure my rash. After a brief wait, and with no breeze whatsoever, one of the plants bowed down where the others stayed perfectly still. I make hedgerow medicines and if I cannot find the plant that I need I will ask to be taken to it. When I collect the plants and harvest them I talk to them in gratitude and explain to them who the medicine is for and what ailments they will be addressing.
It is a wonderful feeling to heal somebody, and even more sublime to be in such deep connection with nature. Often one finds that some animals are more open to telepathy with human animals than others. No wonder when animals are so used to us thinking they are just dumb beasts, often treating them badly either through ignorance or patent cruelty.
One such animal was a beautiful bay horse named Campbell. He was unfortunate enough to have a groom who was very ignorant and cruel, be his guardian. Dear, sweet Campbell, was always fielded alone which is a dire way for herd animals to exist. He had no grass, no shade, no friends and I often found he had no water. I would go and see Campbell every day and his loneliness was palpable.
I would try my best to be nice and gently convince the groom he needed more in his life but was always met with a brick wall of obtuse indifference. The weather became unusually hot for English summertime that year and Campbell consistently had no water.
One afternoon I found him in a different paddock next to two mares who were both in season, again with no shade and no water. I entered the paddock, and with nostrils flaring and making a strange and unfamiliar equine noise, he rushed towards me and literally buried his face in my torso for solace, remaining there for the next 10 minutes.
I was covered in his blood from his bites. I printed some information about colic prevention from the Blue Cross website and handed it to her. For one week Campbell had water every day and was wearing a fly protection rug and mask. The following week however, back in his lonely field on a day when the temperatures were soaring, I found Campbell once again without any water.
I was very tired having worked all day and his field was half a mile away from my cottage. I will never forget his response — he put his head in one empty bucket and looked at me, then he did the same with the other bucket and looked at me. Actions do indeed speak louder than words. I ferried 15 litres of water over to his field in a wheelbarrow of which he drank 5 litres straight away.
I hope Campbell and all the others have gone on to a better home or at least ended up with more competant caretakers. This is the only downside to communicating with animals. A horse who was scared of going to an Elite English School where spolied children can keep their horses at school. A cat that was peeing in the house… I attended another two day workshop with the same teacher, day two was focussing on Gestalt Therapy and Remote Viewing which is basically learning to communicate and heal from long distance.
Day two was Remote Viewing, so to learn we were partnered up with someone new to us that weekend and told to swap our pet photographs. The object of the exercise was, with permission of the other person, to access their house by communicating with their pet through the photograph.
Not quite believing I or anyone could do such a thing, I nevertheless introduced myself to Basil and asked him to show me around his house. We were encouraged to draw any images we saw or write down any words we received. Suddenly I can see a kitchen, with a catflap in a pvc back door. Then I find myself travelling through the catflap into the garden where I can see a beige coloured paving slab path separating two lawns, and a wooden shed to the left with a tall wooden fence surrounding the modest garden.
Then we go back through the catflap and into the kitchen where he shows me not only the food he eats but the two different brands of food he gets fed, and his silver bowl. His favourite place to sleep in the kitchen is a beige chair, and then he takes me upstairs to the windowsill where he likes to sit and watch the world go by.
Before I left the house he told me something about his guardians with a request attached. I find myself showing a complete stranger the sketch I had drawn of her own house and garden. She told me Basil had been rescued with another cat and they were both house cats until the other cat had died.
Since that day, Basil had been wandering out into the garden but never further than the fence. She confirmed his food, the brands, his favourite place to sleep and his spot on the windowsill. We were both utterly flabbergasted. I will add here, the animal communicators all explain that the reason we are able to use photographs to communicate is a Quantam Physics factor. I believe Quantam Physics is yet another scientific fraud we have been force fed, so I have no idea how communication through that medium works, just that it does.
On the same workshop I was partnered with a woman who gave me a photograph of her dead dog. I was able to ask and answer her four confirmation questions accurately, and then put her mind at rest that she had done the right thing in putting her beloved pet to sleep at the time that she did.
They also say delightful things like our departed loved ones come with us on walks and watch over us. Now I am aware of that idea I can feel their presence.
I was asked to communicate with a new horse at a livery stable, she had got into the habit of throwing the boss off every time he rode her.
And I want a purple rug. She also told me her saddle was very uncomfortable. When I left her stable one of the grooms who I had not met before, came over and asked me if I had been able to communicate. She then started to tell me where she thought the horse was in pain and my sketch matched exactly with her assertions. I told Tom my findings and he was really unhappy with her name choice, but admitted the saddle they used was not one that had been specifically made for her.
And he would change her rug to a purple one. Buttercup has now had the physical therapy she needed to help her ailments and has a new saddle especially fitted for her back, and has managed to keep Tom off the floor.
Anyone can learn to communicate with animals. Just think why does your dog know you are thinking about taking them for a walk almost before you have even formulated the thought? But animal communication is right-hemisphere brain activity, understanding that the education system is a deliberate attempt to make you entirely left-hemisphered, will assist you enormously.
Attending one of the many workshops on offer will be the start of your intraspecies communication and a new way of looking at all life and nature, even the planet we live on.
According to the ancient Pagan Mysteries, and the biography of the earth recovered from the Nag Hammadhi Codices by modern day Gnostic John Lamb Lash, Gaia Sophia is a living conscious being, our Planetary Animal Mother, who can communicate with you too. Does your cat have you wrapped around her little fuzzy paws? New science unlocks the mysteries of human-animal bonding and how our animal companions manipulate us into loving them - for our good and theirs.
People have a long history of living and bonding with domesticated animals. A recent genome study concluded that dogs may have been domesticated as far back as 34, years ago. Today, our animal companions are as beloved as ever with the American pet population expanding from about 40 million cats and dogs in to more than million in Roughly two-thirds of US households now include at least one pet.
Not only are pets on the rise, but the significance of our human-animal relationships seems to be deepening. A growing number of young adults are trading in their human partners for the four-legged kind. Many report experiencing greater distress from the loss of a pet than from a breakup. In a recent poll, a surprising 38 percent of dog owners reported loving their pets more than their partners! Our animal companions obviously bring lightness and joy to our lives, but science now reveals they may be bringing much more.
The Magical Healing Powers of Animals. In addition to offering companionship, animals benefit people in a number of different ways. For example, animals have developed special defenses over the millennia to ensure survival in the wild, and some of these have benefits for humankind.
Human wounds treated with NGF heal twice as quickly as untreated wounds. The purring of a cat can help mend broken bones and soft tissue injuries because they purr at 20 to 50 Hertz, a frequency range found to promote tissue healing.
And a protein from the venom of the Malayan pit viper is being used in Europe to treat strokes and blood clots. Science shows that pet owners are reaping an amazing number of health benefits, including the following: For children, family pets offer unique benefits, both physically and emotionally. Dogs can forestall the development of allergies in children raised with them.
The emotional benefits are even more profound. Caring for a pet teaches children compassion, self-esteem, and responsibility for the care of another, as well as improving cognitive skills, mitigating stress, and numerous other benefits. Children with autism are sometimes better able to interact with animals, and this may actually improve their ability to interact with people.
Science shows cats are especially helpful to autistic children, increasing their social interactivity and improving communication skills, tactile and eye contact, smiling and laughter. Oxytocin Creates Friends with Benefits. Why do cats and dogs hold this almost-magical power over humans? Recent discoveries are beginning to provide an answer: A recent groundbreaking study was the first to identify a hormonal bonding effect between humans and other species, which may help to explain how dogs became domesticated thousands of years ago.
According to the study, when your dog looks into your eyes, he activates the same hormonal response as an infant. Produced by the hypothalamus, oxytocin is the hormone responsible for mother-infant bonding, flooding each with feelings of happiness, trust and well being. In addition to its role in bonding and relationships, oxytocin confers physical health benefits as well, including reduced pain and inflammation, which could explain some of the health benefits of pet ownership outlined above.
But oxytocin may explain only part of our connection with dogs. A prior study found dogs to be sensitive to human social cues, such as the intention to interact with them when making eye contact. According to Medical Daily:. Dogs are not the only species casting oxytocin spells on humans - cats are taking full advantage as well.
A recent study found that cats attach to humans as social partners, not just for the sake of obtaining food. This research is the first to show in detail that cat-human relationships are essentially identical to human-human ones, at least biochemically, with cats frequently stepping into roles of surrogate children in nurturing homes. This of course will not be new information to cat lovers. Petting a cat is found to produce an immediate oxytocin release in both cat and human - but if that human is a woman, the effects may be far more pronounced.
This study and others confirm that, while cats have plenty of male admirers, women initiate contact with their kitties much more often than men, and vice versa. Female owners also have more intense relationships with their cats, and cats especially adore - and manipulate - their ladies.
Cats are cashing in on human maternal instinct! Regardless of whether or not we humans are being manipulated by our animal friends, the benefits of sharing our homes with them cannot be denied. Science has proven that if you want to live a longer, healthier, happier life - and raise your children in an environment that cultivates compassion and responsibility - then adopting a pet may be just the prescription.
The result of the June 23 referendum will have far-reaching consequences for politics, the economy, defense, migration and diplomacy in Britain and elsewhere. Bloomberg tracker indicates 3. The recent murder of Jo Cox is an indication that the anti-Brexit camp are so desperate, they believe they could easily use it to reverse the sentiment of the people, or at the very least, they could use the murder to mask the rigging of the votes on June 30, just like they employed fear mongering during the last Scotland referendum.
Scotland Referendum Fraud Exposed. The bigger picture, however, will always be that the Sheeples are subjected to constant flow of distraction to preoccupy them with issues that that have nothing to do with real freedom. There must be a more decisive action from those who see things as they truly are. We believe that this is just a conservative figure.
We can avoid using drugs, defeat any viral attack and scaremongering, like the Zika virus, easily by knowing how to build our own comprehensive antiviral system. Find more about it here. Mr van Wyk makes a good point. Don't hold your breath for a boycott.
Google and Facebook command a huge share of New Zealander's online attention. Spark would be cutting off its nose to spite its face. Australia and the UK have introduced so-called "Google tax" measures against such behaviour.
The Spark boss says doing the same here would level the playing field. The abandonment of our nuclear free status immediately places our sovereign nation at risk in the incidence of a nuclear war and believe me when I say this is the madness that is driving Washington policy right now. Wake up readers to the fact that right now the U. These insane people are agents of the U. That is why any move to embrace more U. The Yekuana Indians were unlike any people Liedloff had ever encountered.
They seemed universally happy and fulfilled. Their children, especially, were remarkably calm and independent. In the entire time she stayed with them, she witnessed no sibling rivalry, no whining, and almost no crying, fussing or tantrums among their infants and small children. She was amazed to see older children and teens confidently performing difficult tasks and making mature decisions, without the defiance or recalcitrance so common in Western adolescents.
In her own words:. Liedloff observed that in this culture, as in many other indigenous societies around the globe, children were treated very differently than in Western cultures. She began to develop a theory of human social development based on her observations. According to her, every human being is born with an inborn expectation to undergo certain natural social experiences. These begin with being held immediately after birth, and an extended in-arms phase in early infancy.
Several, like babywearing, extended nursing, and co-sleeping are, if not wholly embraced by Western society, at least becoming better known and more accepted. However, most Western parents who follow these practices agree that their families are still far from experiencing the ideal of human contentedness that Liedloff describes in her book. In other words, once the honeymoon of infancy is over, what then? If the child errs, he should be gently instructed to change his behavior, but he should never be judged negatively as a person because of his mistakes.
The second Continuum concept to keep in mind is that the child should not be the center of attention. Neither, however, should he be excluded from adult society. In Yekuana society, Liedloff observed that adults were available to the child as needed, but focused primarily on their own activities, not on their role as parents. This approach lets the child learn by direct observation and to begin participating in adult activities as he is ready, without the pressure of being in the spotlight.
Any grown-up lady that pleads with a 4-year-old is not to be relied on. What would you like to eat? Can you find the spoons? Keep in mind, though, that taking the lead is not the same thing as taking control over your child. The parents Liedloff observed never forced a child to do chores.
They simply modeled the behavior, and made sure the tools - like a child-size grater - were available to the child. When a child showed an interest, she was allowed to participate as long as she wanted to. It was simply expected that she would naturally want to learn how to do the tasks she observed the adults doing.
By the time they are old enough to be truly helpful, Liedloff noted that continuum-raised children will simply and quietly obey requests for help from adults, reciprocating the respect they had been shown when they were little.
This leads us to the third principle: It is easy for Stone Age parents to be available to their children without making them the center of attention.
After all, they live where they work, and their children spend most of their time freely playing with other children, both younger and older than they are. In fact, every person in their culture is able to model older individuals, and mentor younger individuals in turn. This allows for smooth passage from one stage of life to the next, and reduces or eliminates friction between generations.
In a society which divides its tribes into isolated nuclear families, where adults must often work outside the home, where children are not typically welcomed into the workplace, and where, from preschool to nursing home, our age segregation practices border on the extreme, is it even possible to offer our children - and ourselves - the experiences we apparently need to become truly fulfilled human beings?
Perhaps not to the extent that the Yekuana could. But just as many Western parents have resurrected the practices of babywearing and co-sleeping, why not reclaim the tribal experience as well?
Whether through conscious decisions or instinct, many parents are attempting to do just that - resurrect something of the primal, tribal human experience. In their own ways, they are seeking opportunities to connect with other families in ways that are more natural, organically developing and holistic.
For some families, tribe-building is as simple as staying in place or moving back to live close to extended family. A recent PEW study revealed that 43 percent of young people ages 18—31 are now living with their parents or other kin. This includes a growing number of families with young children, according to Carmen Wong-Ulrich of Baby Center Financial. Granted, this is happening primarily as a result of economic pressure, rather than the desire for a more natural social structure.
However, many of these families are discovering benefits to this arrangement beyond financial relief. Other parents report increased feelings of security, carpooling and other shared duties made easier, built-in babysitters, and family bonding as benefits of living with or near family members. But for the majority of us, living near family is just not an option. Creating Your Own Tribe. It the article, Pitman describes her relationship with her friend Vicki.
Starting when their first babies were infants, the two would get together and help each other with household chores or prepare meals for both families to enjoy, while their kids had the benefit of unstructured play time with adults who remained in close proximity, but engaged in their own adult activities.
Pitman points out that tribe-building involves much more than just scheduling regular playdates. Clean house, work on your car, do projects together, garden, prepare meals, or start a business together. She also cautions not to be too picky about whom you form your tribe with. Just like family, the people you find available may have some qualities that differ from your ideals.
However, once the children reach school age, time spent together in this way often diminishes. Homeschooling families have a unique advantage in this regard. In situations where homeschooling occurs between and around running a home-based business, children also get to observe and learn firsthand how the adult world operates in a way that was once a normal part of growing up, but is now no longer available to the vast majority of modern children.
That said, many homeschoolers still find their lives increasingly dominated by schedules and goals, especially as children grow older. If a tribal experience is truly your ideal, you might find yourself drawn to at least partial unschooling. If you are brave and resourceful, you might consider organizing your own school or other institution.
This is what Natalie Cronin did. She started her home daycare, Under the Tinker Tree, out of a desire to provide her own children with an experience more closely resembling her ideals than would otherwise be possible. Luckily, her vision resonated with others in her community. Finding a local Rudolf Steiner school might be a good alternative. Keep in mind that it is extremely difficult to change already existing conventions. Noelle adds that there are things you can do to protect your child from the less Continuum-friendly aspects of school life.
You may find yourself in the position of wanting to introduce elements of modern tribalism into an existing organization. This is challenging, but not impossible. Then, frame your suggestions in a way that helps them meet existing wants and needs. To some, the ultimate in modern tribe building may well be to start an intentional community based on Continuum and other natural living concepts.
However, a quick search reveals very few existing intentional communities that openly base their values on Continuum ideals. Heart-Culture Farm near Eugene, Oregon, is one. Surely, there are enough families interested in following an attachment parenting lifestyle to warrant a larger number of communities specifically designed to support it?
Yet most intentional communities are very specific as to what is and is not acceptable behavior. Noelle recounts a personal intentional community experience which may shed some light on this question:. It led to a fairly sizable group of people from all over the world getting together for an organizational meeting. We accidentally experienced tribe for about two days. We had this gathering in my hometown, Portland, Oregon.
People had different travel schedules, and a number of people got there a few days before the big meeting. They camped out in our yard and we kind of had this village we created in our yard, and we were all just waiting and very optimistic. So we actually had this tribal experience, and I can only say it was glorious. It was just wonderful, the feeling of this expanded social circle where everyone is just sort of flowing together. The children had all these choices [of playmates].
And we were living that way for a couple of days while we were waiting for this meeting. Then the meeting happened and everyone brought their agendas with them, and their particular attachments that things had to be a certain way, and we started to lose some of that being in the moment with each other. Now it had to be right vs wrong…. We might have weathered that, but I think ultimately a lot of us were recovering our humanity.
But then you have a whole bunch of wounded people who are trying to lift each other up. And I could see that in this particular project, including myself and my wife—we definitely lacked the skill set to do that.
Noelle suspects that being well funded could help such a project overcome this issue by allowing participants the security to work out their differences. Given this experience and others, it seems that this elusive tribal experience is not something to be sought as a goal, but something experienced naturally when people come together without goals or expectations, simply in the enjoyment of being together. What about the Internet? Many people these days are spending increasing amounts of time and energy on the Internet in hopes of connecting to like-minded souls.
The Continuum concept is about more than the sequence of human development. Children, especially, need to experience the world holistically through their senses - the real world with all their senses, not just a pared-down, wired-up virtual semblance with no taste or touch or smell. And believe it or not, we adults need this too. Seeking Your Own Tribe. Cronin, Noelle and Pitman all offer excellent suggestions for developing the kind of comfort with ourselves and others that appears to be a prerequisite for a Continuum lifestyle.
Reconnect with the natural world - even if you live in a city, just going for a walk and passing a tree is connecting and centering. Spend a lot of time together. Choose options that lead to partnership rather than separation and control. Be open to relationships with people who are in different stages of parenthood or life, or whose habits or beliefs differ from yours. Above all, be open about the outcome. Allow your tribe to grow organically, from the inside out. Forget about your goals and focus instead on just the experience of being, right here and right now, with those you happen to be with at the moment.
The destination is the journey itself. But what are we missing when we are behind screens? And how will this impact our children, our society, and eventually, our planet? Is our connection to nature disappearing down the digital rabbit hole? Where We are Coming From. It is also a major source of information for conducting risk assessment, and more broadly for risk management and communication.
Food-borne disease surveillance should be integrated with food monitoring data and data from food animals along the entire feed-food chain.
Integrating such data would result in robust surveillance information and allow appropriate priority setting and public health interventions. Intersectoral, inter-institutional, and international collaboration are of paramount importance. National surveillance is of varying intensity depending on the country and region on the globe. Additionally, methods used are not necessarily uniform, making data interpretation difficult. With respect to the United States, the U.
These nationally notifiable disease reporting systems collect limited standard information, help track trends in those infections, and alert local, state and national health authorities to potential outbreaks. Serotyping clinical isolates of Salmonella at state public health laboratories is a critical part of this surveillance. EFORS collects standardized information on more than reports of outbreaks each year.
The project consists of active surveillance of food-borne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of food-borne diseases in the United States. Food-borne diseases include infections caused by bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio, and parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora.
In , FoodNet surveillance began in five locations: California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, and Oregon. Each year, the surveillance area, or catchment, has expanded, with the inclusion of additional counties or additional sites New York and Maryland in , Tennessee in , Colorado in and New Mexico in The total population of the bacterial catchment is FoodNet provides a network for responding to new and emerging food-borne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of food-borne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific food-borne diseases.
FoodNet provides accurate and detailed surveillance information about those infections for which surveillance is variable or non-existent from state to state. For more information see www. PulseNet reached full national participation in Public health laboratories in all 50 states routinely determine the molecular fingerprints of Escherichia coli O H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and regularly subtype common serotypes of Salmonella; standard protocols have also been developed for subtyping a growing number of other food-borne pathogens.
Rapid electronic comparison of strain patterns in state and national databases provides early detection of clusters of related infections, guiding investigations, and verifying control. PulseNet identifies potential outbreaks that otherwise would have been missed, particularly those that are widely dispersed. Identifying and investigating such outbreaks can identify system problems in food safety, so that they can be corrected.
For example, with the regular use of PulseNet, the frequency of detected outbreaks of listeriosis in the United States has increased from one every five years to two per year, focusing attention on critical points of control within the food safety system.
Food-borne outbreak investigations are a critical part of the food safety system. New and recurrent food-borne hazards can be rapidly identified by investigation of food-borne outbreaks.
Careful investigation of an outbreak, including tracing the food from farm to table and reconstructing the means of contamination, is critical to move the food safety agenda forward when new hazards emerge. Most outbreaks are investigated and controlled by local and state health departments. Information is shared within legal constraints, and information received from other organizations is used to improve analysis and respond to problems.
Well-trained personnel enhance surveillance, and FDA relies strongly on State and local authorities for quality surveillance information. EOC conveys proper alerts through various mechanisms to respond effectively to these situations, as needed. There is a hour toll-free number for public health partners to call which routes the caller to the appropriate officer.
Distribution of information through the Epi-X network is to promote rapid communications of recent outbreaks and other health events among local, state, and federal health officials.
Epi-X carries reports of disease events outside, as well as inside, the United States. This dissemination of international health information promotes further surveillance of these conditions in the United States, as well as follow-up collaborations with foreign authorities dealing with these health events.
It is regularly used to disseminate information by the Agency. For example, for a food product that is recalled because there is a reasonable probability that use of or exposure to the product will cause serious health consequences or death referred to as Class I , and is exported, notification will be provided to the counterpart authorities.
It enables health officials to assess risks and analyze trends, and it provides the necessary infrastructure for an early-warning system that identifies potentially hazardous foods. At present, there are laboratories representing 49 states that are part of the eLEXNET systems with 62 laboratories actively submitting data. We are continuing to increase the number of participating laboratories.
NARMS monitors antibiotic resistance of select food-borne pathogens isolated from clinical settings both human and animal and the antibiotic resistance of isolates from foods. The system was initiated in in response to public health concerns associated with the approval of fluoroquinolone products for use in poultry. NARMS monitors changes in susceptibilities to 17 antimicrobial drugs of zoonotic enteric pathogens from human and animal clinical specimens, from healthy farm animals, from carcasses of food-producing animals at slaughter, and from isolates from samples of retail foods.
The system includes a veterinary arm, a human arm, and a retail food monitoring arm. The CCMS investigations have led to recognition of outbreaks, voluntary recalls of adulterated products, and changes to specifications of school lunch products. This system is currently undergoing an enhancement which will allow early recognition of complaint patterns that may indicate unusual or intentional events.
As such it is also a surveillance system, allowing FSIS to react to the presence of pathogens considered adulterants with the appropriate public health regulatory response, as well as to provide a rough estimate of the prevalence of specific pathogens on particular products. Timely alerts via current notification processes are needed.
Effective exchange of information is difficult when countries do not carry out the same methods and procedures or do not use the same set of standards. Many non-industrialized countries lack the resources to conduct meaningful surveillance, and even the countries that undertake surveillance may be using different methods and have different standards. These countries need trained staff in government, as well as adequately staffed and equipped laboratories and trained health care professionals, to identify and report diseases.
Establishing consistent laboratory methodologies, laboratory training, emergency preparedness training and procedures, database development, further assistance for developing countries, and strengthened communication networks are key strategies to advance the status of international food-borne disease surveillance.
Identifying and exchanging specific contact information for specific products with other countries and developing agreements to cross-train with pertinent foreign officials would improve international information exchange.
Some countries could also provide training, equipment, and technical support to international organizations, as well as to individual countries. Surveillance of food-borne diseases should be given a high priority in the development of a food safety infrastructure. Building capacity for public health laboratories to conduct laboratory-based surveillance and to conduct epidemiologically-based surveillance are important global public health objectives.
The needs of developing countries should be particularly considered. There is a need to be proactive in establishing one or more sentinel sites for food-borne disease in developing countries.
There is also a need to develop and coordinate a global approach to strengthen surveillance at national, regional, and international levels. Current surveillance is dependent upon physicians and clinical laboratories reporting illness and specific diagnosed infections. Thus, an improvement would be increasing the capacity of laboratories to identify specific pathogens and developing mechanisms to facilitate reporting of specific diseases.
The ongoing support of interagency collaboration, international surveillance, and scientific research is crucial in preparing the international community to deal with food-borne disease in the global market place. Food-borne disease surveillance within individual countries is important to track and to monitor domestic food-borne threats to public health. Collected information, including active and passive reporting from sub-jurisdictions e. Within individual countries, the surveillance arm of government must coordinate with the regulatory arm of government to enforce food safety standards.
These internal food safety networks support global surveillance, communication, and coordination. Formal programmes include Global Salm-Surv a global network of laboratories and individuals involved in capacity building for surveillance, isolation, identification, and antimicrobial resistance testing of Salmonella and the European Commission Health and Consumer Protection weekly reports from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed RASFF.
One goal of RASFF is to provide individual control authorities with an effective tool for exchanging information on food safety measures. Yet, formal international food-borne disease surveillance communication is limited. Much of what is shared has been dependent upon relationships that people at various agencies developed over the years with colleagues in other countries. Efforts are emerging to strengthen international food-borne disease surveillance.
There is a more general WHO disease surveillance programme called Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, a data mining software developed by the Canadians. A number of international links can also be found at www. Another international electronic tool for food-borne disease information is ProMed, which reports on international health issues multiple times a day. Below are more details on some of the specific international collaborative efforts.
Assisting foreign governments in investigation of large or unusual food-borne outbreaks when requested, providing reference laboratory consultations, and assisting in specific disease surveillance projects in other countries.
This includes the training courses. Facilitating the replication of the PulseNet molecular subtyping network internationally in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, and in Central and South America. This includes assisting with technical consultation and participation in training. Extending a communication network for food-borne epidemiologists in the United States, to include Health Canada and the central hub of EnterNet a cooperative arrangement among European countries.
Providing consultation and botulinum antitoxin for suspected cases of botulism to other western hemisphere countries through an agreement with the Pan American Health Organization PAHO. Establishing the Field Epidemiology Training Programmes FETP , which assists foreign governments in establishing epidemiologic competence in disease surveillance and outbreak investigation and control and fosters international collaboration and communication among its trainees.
At present, FETP is active in almost 20 countries. Developing and disseminating the SafeWaterSystem, a point-of-use drinking water disinfections strategy that can be in homes, clinics, and places of food preparation to provide safe water for drinking, washing hands, and preparing food.
Global Salm-Surv is part of WHO's effort to strengthen the capacities of its Member States in the surveillance and control of major food-borne diseases and to contribute to the global effort of containment of antimicrobial resistance in food-borne pathogens.
Since , institutions and individuals in human health, veterinary, and food-related disciplines have participated in Salm-Surv activities, such as regional trainings for microbiologists and epidemiologists, external quality assurance and reference testing, an electronic discussion group, and a web-based databank containing an annual summary of laboratories.
Over the next five years, Global Salm-Surv plans to improve its regional coverage with new training courses in Central Asia, Eastern and Southern Africa, Brazil, and Europe, encourage participation in the External Quality Assurance System and in Focused Regional or National Projects, expand to other food-borne pathogens Campylobacter , produce training manuals in microbiology and epidemiology, and establish regional centers.
For more information see: This has facilitated early interventions in food-borne outbreaks in terms of investigative procedures and public health prevention strategies, thus preventing additional illnesses and possibly saving lives.
A feasibility study of PulseNet Europe was completed for three food-borne pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. The results of this study were presented and discussed at a workshop held in Paris, France on 16 June PulseNet Europe was successful in obtaining funding from the European Union for Through interactive brainstorming sessions, the benefits and challenges of forming PulseNet Asia Pacific were discussed, an action plan for the establishment of the network was developed, and a Steering Committee for this network was formed at this meeting.
Several countries Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and New Zealand have already established PulseNet networks and are beginning to actively perform real-time subtyping of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Issues related to funding for establishing and maintaining a central PulseNet database for the Asia Pacific network and for coordinating activities of the network are still to be addressed.
The participants expressed overwhelming support for the establishment of PulseNet America Latina. Public health microbiologists from six countries Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay, and Venezuela were trained in the first workshop.
The European Community's RASFF was established to provide control authorities with an effective tool for exchange of information on measures taken to ensure food safety. Whenever a member of the network has information relating to the existence of a serious direct or indirect risk to human health, this information is immediately notified to the Commission under the RASFF.
The Commission immediately transmits this information to the members of the network. Without prejudice to other Community legislation, the Member States immediately notify the Commission under the rapid alert system of:.
To assist the members of the network, information is classified under two different headings, Alert Notification and Informational Notifications. Alert Notifications-Alert notifications are sent when the food or feed presenting the risk is on the market and when immediate action is required.
The notification aims at giving all the members of the network the information to verify whether the concerned product is on their market, so that they also can take the necessary measures. Consumers can be reassured that products subject to an alert notification have been withdrawn or are in the process of being withdrawn from the market.
The Member States have their own mechanisms to carry out such actions, including the provision of detailed information through the media if necessary. Informational Notifications-Informational notifications concern a food or feed for which a risk has been identified, but for which the other members of the network do not have to take immediate action, because the product has not reached their market.
These notifications mostly concern food and feed consignments that have been tested and rejected at the external borders of the EU. Consumers can be reassured that products subject to an information notification have not reached the market or that all necessary measures have already been taken.
The Commission publishes a weekly overview of alert and information notifications. As it is necessary to strike the balance between openness and the protection of commercial information, the trade names and the identity of individual companies are not published. This is not detrimental to consumer protection, as a RASFF notification implies that measures have been or are in the process of being taken.
WHO is the implementing agency for the contributing institutions located in over 70 countries around the world. GEMS' purpose is to compile data on food contamination and human exposure from different countries for global synthesis, evaluation, and presentation.
In , GEMS began developing a new data structure and protocols for the electronic data submission. The protocols involve encoding and formatting data in a manner compatible with the database maintained at WHO headquarters. Protocols for aggregate and individual data on contaminant levels in specific food commodities include descriptions of the data fields needed to ensure complete, quality electronic data submissions.
Uniform implementation and wide accessibility of the GEMS system make it a model for expanded, international food surveillance efforts. While there are no all-encompassing international surveillance systems, examples that serve to illustrate the value of such systems have been illustrated.
The structure, function, and interactions between each country's government agencies form the start of an eventually global surveillance, regulatory, and protective framework to curtail the transmission of food-borne diseases.
Ultimately, WHO, as the lead international public health organization, could be the focal point of such a global surveillance framework. WHO and FAO, through their collective food safety capability, including the WHO Food Safety Department and the FAO Food Standards Programme, could, with the provision of adequate financial and staffing resources, provide the organizational and scientific capability to support a global food-borne disease surveillance system.
The Forum may wish to consider the following points regarding international cooperation on food contamination and food-borne disease surveillance. Are there other major programmes and international activities that should be brought forward?
Are elements missing from these strategies? What strategies should be pursued to better enable international cooperation on food-borne disease surveillance? How best can their role be enhanced in this area? Farming and nature exercise a profound influence over each other. Farming has contributed over the centuries to creating and maintaining a variety of valuable semi-natural habitats. They shaped an important part of landscapes worldwide and are home to many of the world's richest wildlife.
Farming also supports a diverse rural community that is not only a fundamental asset of international culture, but also plays an essential role in maintaining the environment in a healthy state. Farming is an activity whose significance goes beyond simple food production. Throughout the production chain processes occur that can have an impact on the natural environment and consequently, directly or indirectly, on human health and development.
For example, heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers, incorrect drainage or irrigation practices, a high level of mechanization or unsuitable land use can produce environmental degradation. However, abandonment of farming activities can also endanger the environmental heritage through loss of semi-natural habitats as well as biodiversity and landscape associated with them.
Likewise, the effect of agricultural production systems on human health directly farmer's occupational health or indirectly consumer's health through food are increasingly being recognized as an integrated element in the broader evaluation of environmental risks related to agriculture. The links between the richness of the natural environment and farming practices are complex.
While many valuable habitats are maintained by extensive farming, and a wide range of wild species rely on this for their survival, agricultural loss of wildlife can be the result of inappropriate agricultural practices and land use. Discussions on possible future environmental effects of new technologies in food production will necessarily have to take outset in the present situation of agricultural effects on the environment, including derived effects on human health, recognizing that present trends of conventional agriculture are likely to be reflected in the objectives of modern food production.
Agriculture adds to greenhouse gas GHG problems. There are three main sources of GHG emissions from agriculture: N2O nitrous oxide emissions from soils, mainly due to nitrogen fertilization; CH4 methane emissions from intestinal fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management.
Measures being considered include: Further development of renewable, agricultural biomass could contribute to reductions in emissions from energy and transport, while benefiting the agricultural sector. Water pollution by nitrates from agricultural sources, where improved agricultural practices are thought to improve pollution. Pesticides have been proven to have an effect on the environment and ecosystems by reducing biodiversity, especially by reducing weeds and insects which are often important elements of the food chain e.
In addition, human health can be negatively affected through direct exposure and indirect exposure, e. Systems to reduce the need for pesticide use, especially integrated pest management, organic farming or in some cases genetically modified crops are increasingly investigated at national and international level .
Soil degradation processes such as desertification, erosion, decline in soil organic matter, soil contamination e. Such degradation processes can result from inappropriate farming practices such as unbalanced fertilization, over abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, improper use of pesticides, use of heavy machinery, or overgrazing. Measures to prevent soil degradation include support to organic farming, conservation tillage, the protection and maintenance of terraces, safer pesticide use, integrated crop management, management of low-intensity pasture systems, lowering stock density and the use of certified compost.
Irrigation can also lead to environmental concerns, such as over-extraction of water from subterranean aquifers, irrigation driven erosion, soil salinization, alteration of pre-existing semi-natural habitats and, secondary impacts arising from the intensification of the agricultural production permitted by irrigation. In recent decades, the rate of decline and even disappearance of species and related habitats, ecosystems and genes i. Declines in biodiversity are of direct consequence for food security when they affect food related organisms and relatives with relevance for breeding.
Furthermore, intensified agriculture including modern breeding systems has resulted in significant reductions of landraces, adapted to local specificities as well as traditional knowledge.
Assessment of agricultural impacts on the environment requires the use of holistic models which are able to integrate multiple sources of information . Previous scientific discussions have concluded that solutions applied at farm level contributed environmental problems but they are not adequate to the task of realizing long-term environmental goals.
This requires system innovations at higher levels of aggregation, involving, for example, looking for opportunities to negotiate recycling systems by linking sectors within agriculture and other areas affecting the environment, e.
As a consequence of public discussion, new concepts for policies of agriculture and environment interactions have been developed in many countries including an improved public monitoring and responsibility for sustainability.
Secretary-General Kofi Annan in June , is an international work programme designed to meet the needs of decision makers and the public for scientific information concerning the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and options for responding to those changes. The MA focuses on ecosystem services the benefits people obtain from ecosystems , how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades, and response options that might be adopted at local, national, or global scales to improve ecosystem management and thereby contribute to human well-being and poverty alleviation.
Work on agro-environmental indicators provided information on the current state and changes in the conditions of the environment in agriculture. It also resulted in a better understanding of linkages between the causes and impacts of agriculture on the environment, looking at agricultural policy reform, trade liberalization and environmental measures. This all contributes to monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of policies addressing agri-environmental concerns.
Hazards can take many forms, wholly natural in origin or derived from human activities and interventions. In the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD, ratified by countries defined a legally binding instrument for biodiversity protection and sustainable use of biological resources. The goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity is "the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefit arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
Biological diversity is closely linked to human interests. Biodiversity is highly important for several quite different reasons: It provides a source of significant economic, aesthetic and cultural benefits. The well-being and prosperity of earth's ecological balance as well as human society depend directly on the extent and status of biological diversity.
Naturalism and nature protection: Some difficulties for environmental protection derive from different interpretations and understanding of the idea of nature.
Especially in the consumer's debate on the creation of genetically modified organisms, the idea of the need to protect nature was often not well defined, mainly because of differences in the understanding of the concept of nature, ranging between concepts of wilderness, human environment, flexibility of natural systems  and ideas of naturalism. Levels of protection may vary as goals range from sustaining ecosystem services to fully preserving endangered species or fragile protected areas.
Biotic homogenization that decreases regional biotas and functional diversity would reduce resilience by reducing the available range of species-specific responses to such environmental changes as droughts, contaminants, or invasive species. The links between environmental protection and human health through the control of direct and indirect health effects of environmental deterioration needs to be factored into these equations, notably with food safety as one of the direct indicators.
Following adoption of hybrid breeding technologies further breeding objectives included methods for the introduction of increased genetic variability using several methods for mutagenesis such as chemical mutagenesis or irradiation as well as various ways of tissue cultures. The further development resulted in the presently most advanced methods of modern biotechnologies, the production of organism by genetic modification using introduction of defined new or recombinant genetic material by vectors and transformation methods.
These organisms are typically named Genetically Modified organisms or GM organisms. Improved methodology for the development of GM organisms GMOs by homologous recombination may ultimately reduce the potential for unintended effects, including health effects, of the inclusion of new genes randomly in the genome, stemming from present technology.
Likewise improved methods for a molecular containment of recombinant genes may reduce problems of unintended gene dispersal. Conflicting assessments and incomplete substantiation of the benefits, risks and limitations of GM food by various scientific, commercial, consumer and public organizations have resulted in national and international controversy regarding their safe use as food and safe release into the environment. An example is the recent debate on food aid that contained GM material offered to countries in southern Africa in This international debate has often been focused on human health and environmental safety of these new products.
At present, only a few food crops are permitted for food use and traded on the international food and feed markets. These include herbicide- and insect-resistant maize Bt maize , herbicide-resistant soybeans, rape canola oilseed and insect- and herbicide-resistant cotton primarily a fibre crop, though refined cottonseed oil is used as food.
In addition, several government authorities have approved varieties of papaya, potato, rice, squash, sugar beet and tomato for food use and environmental release. Further development of GM crops is likely to produce a range of GM crops with enhanced nutritional profiles.
A significant proportion of these traits relates directly to human health, the beta-carotene Vitamin-A precursor rich "golden rice" as the most well-known example.
Other examples with health implications are removing allergens and anti-nutrients, altering fatty-acid profiles and increasing the anti-oxidant content. All new products related to such potential health benefits will naturally need to be scrutinized through thorough environmental and food safety risk assessments.
An analysis of risks and effects of food production practices using modern methods of biotechnology needs to reflect on all developments in the area, based on knowledge of modern biology and keeping in mind that the definition of modern biotechnology is often not very standardized.
Integrated pest management IPM needs to be seen in the light of modern biotechnology because of the use of advanced bio-technological methods: Definitions of IPM cover a range of approaches: Suitable pest control methods should be used in an integrated manner and pesticides should be used on an "as needed basis" only, and as a last resort component of an IPM strategy.
In such a strategy, the effects of pesticides on human health, the environment, sustainability of the agricultural system and the economy should be carefully considered. According to FAO, IPM programmes are designed to generate independence and increased profits for farmers, and savings on foreign imports for governments. IPM enables farmers to make informed decisions to manage their crops.
Sometimes also organic farming is discussed as a modern technology for food production, where farmers adhering to this idea are aiming for similar objectives like IPM but more clearly pronounce the ideas of integrity, self determination and co evolution. Principles of the environmental risk assessment, ERA: In many national regulations the elements of the ERA for GM food organisms include the biological and molecular characterizations of the genetic insert, the nature and environmental context of the recipient organism, the significance of new traits of the GMO for the environment, and information on the geographical and ecological characteristics of the environment in which the introduction will take place.
The risk assessment focuses especially on potential consequences on the stability and diversity of ecosystems, including putative invasiveness, vertical or horizontal gene flow, other ecological impacts, effects on biodiversity and the impact of presence of GM material in other products. Internationally the concept of familiarity was developed also in the concept of environmental safety of transgenic plants.
Familiarity can also be used to indicate appropriate management practices including whether standard agricultural practices are adequate or whether other management practices are needed to manage the risk OECD, Currently the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is the only international regulatory instrument which deals specifically with the potential adverse effects of genetically modified organisms known as Living Modified Organisms LMOs under the Protocol on the environment.
The Biosafety Protocol covers transboundary movements of any genetically modified foods that meet the definition of LMO. The Protocol establishes a harmonized set of international rules and procedures designed to ensure that countries are provided with the relevant information, through the information exchange system called "Biosafety Clearing-House".
This Internet-based information system enables countries to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of LMOs. It also ensures that LMO shipments are accompanied by appropriate identification documentation. Furthermore, the scope of its consideration of human health issues is limited, given that its primary focus is biodiversity, in line with the scope of the Convention itself.
Potential unintended effects of GMOs on non target organisms, ecosystems and Biodiversity: Potential risks for the environment include unintended effects on non target organisms, ecosystems and biodiversity.
Insect resistant GM crops have been developed by expression of a variety of insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt. Detrimental effect on beneficial insects or a faster induction of resistant insects depending on the specific characteristics of the Bt proteins, expression in pollen and areas of cultivation have been considered in the environmental risk assessment ERA of a number of insect protected GM crops. These questions are considered an issue for monitoring strategies and improved pest resistance management, which inherently can affect food safety in the longer term.
Under certain agro-ecological situations, such as a high weed pressure, the use of herbicide tolerant crops has resulted in a reduction in quantity of the herbicides used, in other cases no herbicide reductions or even the need of increased herbicide uses have been reported. Out-crossing of transgenes has been reported from fields of commercially grown GM plants including oilseed rape and sugar beet, and has been demonstrated in experimental releases for a number of crops including rice and maize.
Out-crossing could result in an undesired transfer of genes such as herbicide resistance genes to non-target crops or weeds creating new weed management problems. The consequences of out-crossing can be expected in regions where a GM crop has a sympatric distribution and synchronized flowering period, that is highly compatible with a weedy or wild relative species as demonstrated e.
The possibility that certain genetically engineered fish and other animals may escape, reproduce in the natural environment and introduce recombinant genes into wild populations is a concern of a report of a recent US Academy of Science study . Genetically engineered insects, shellfish, fish and other animals that can easily escape, are highly mobile and form feral populations easily, are of concern, especially if they are more successful at reproduction than their natural counterparts.
For example, it is possible that transgenic salmon with genes engineered to accelerate growth released into the natural environment could compete more successfully for food and mates than wild salmon, thus endangering wild populations. The use of sterile all-female genetically engineered fish could reduce interbreeding between native populations and farmed populations, a current problem with the use of non-engineered fish in ocean net-pen farming.
Sterility eliminates the potential for spread of transgenes in the environment, but does not eliminate all potential for ecological harm. Monosex triploidy is the best existing method for sterilizing fish and shellfish, although robust triploidy verification procedures are essential. Gene transfer between bacteria belonging to different species, genera or even families has been demonstrated in soil and other systems.
Such gene transfer goes on between ordinary microorganisms in all ecosystems, and has also been demonstrated from GM microorganisms to other microorganisms, e. The transfer of antibiotic genes to microorganisms present in foods and of clinical importance is an unwanted event relative to food safety, while the very low frequency of such transfer most probably leads to very low levels of concern.
Only a limited number of releases of GM microorganisms e. Pseudomonas and Rhizobia have been permitted mainly to explore the spread and the fate of microorganisms in nature.
In some cases released GM bacterial populations have been found to persist in the soil for years. Regional specificity in safety assessments: Contradictory findings as relates benefits or disadvantages for the same GM crop may reflect different agro-ecological conditions in different regions. For example, the use of herbicide resistant crops and the consequent herbicide use could potentially be detrimental in a small sized agricultural area, which has extensive crop rotation and low levels of pest pressure.
However, the moderate herbicide use related to these GM plants could be beneficial in other agricultural situations where it might represent a decrease in herbicide use. Presently, no conclusive evidence on environmental advantages or costs can be generalized from the use of GM crops. Consequences may vary significantly between different GM traits, crop types and different local conditions including ecological and agro-ecological characteristics.
In , the UK government asked an independent consortium of researchers to investigate how growing genetically modified GM crops might affect the abundance and diversity of farmland wildlife compared with growing conventional varieties of the same crops.
The researchers stress that the differences they found do not arise just because the crops have been genetically modified. They arise because these GM crops give farmers new options for weed control where they use different herbicides and apply them differently. Monitoring of human health and environmental safety: In the future specific GM organisms may gain approvals for widespread production where the approval may not always include the possibility to enter them also in the human food supply.
Examples could be plants or animals used for drug production. In such situations, it will be important to consider whether or not to apply post-market monitoring for unexpected environmental spread of the GM animals or animals and their transgenes in the event that these would pose food safety hazards.
A prerequisite for any kind of monitoring are tools to identity or trace GMOs or products derived from GMOs in the environment or food-chain. Detection techniques such as PCR are in place in a number of countries to monitor the presence of GMOs in foodstuffs, to enable the enforcement of GM labelling requirements and for the monitoring of effects on the environment. Attempts to standardize analytical methods for tracing GMOs have been initiated e.
The need to assess indirect effects of the use of GMOs in food production has been emphasized by many countries. For example, the production of chemicals or enzymes from contained GM micro-organisms e. A further example of beneficial human environmental outcomes of the use of GM crops is the reduction in the use, environmental contamination and human exposure to pesticides demonstrated in some areas. This has been demonstrated especially through the use of pesticide resistant Bt cotton, which has been shown to decrease pesticide poisoning in farm workers .
Out-crossing of GM plants with conventional crops or wild relatives, as well as the contamination of conventional crops with GM material, can have an indirect effect on food safety and food security by contamination of genetic resources .
The Codex guidelines for the safety assessment of GM foods include the analysis of potential unintended effects, where effects on the environment may result in unintended, indirect effects on human health. Crop breeding strategies are highly dependent upon preservation of diversity of crops and wild relatives. Many methods of conventional and modern biotechnology can interfere with diversity of organisms which have relevance for further breeding.
In crops these methods can often concentrate on the further improvement of few elite lines only. The majority of locally adapted land races e. Also the system for the protection of intellectual property rights interferes with crop diversity. There is growing scientific and public concern about a rapid decline of diversity, e. On the other hand modern methods of biotechnology can be beneficial for enabling diversity in scenarios where possibilities of conventional breeding are difficult because of sterility and pests, e.
Historically, plant genetic resources were freely provided by developing countries to gene-banks world-wide. Now international policy attaches importance to national ownership of such resources. An important aspect for the future potential of agricultural research is access to genetic resources for researchers on terms that recognize the contributions made by farmers to the conservation and sustainable utilization of these resources.
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources adopted at a conference by the Food and Agriculture Organization in November , provides the legal framework for dealing with the resources on which food security and sustainable agriculture depend.
The Treaty gives a directive on the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture making provision for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity CBD.
The Treaty also addresses farmers' rights. The Treaty establishes a Multilateral System of Facilitated Access and Benefit-sharing MLS for key crops, emphasizing the interdependency of countries in terms of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
The developing countries rich in genetic resources are encouraged to place germplasm in the MLS. The users of the material will sign a Material Transfer Agreement, incorporating the conditions for access and benefit sharing through a fund established under the Treaty.
In return, the owners of the genetic resources would get a share of the benefits arising from their use and development in the way of information, technology transfer and capacity building.
Agency for International Development reported that between and the year the world lost 22 percent of its high-potential agricultural land. That's , square miles, an area equal in size to Alaska. The loss is alarming because, as population pressures mount, agricultural production will have to expand onto medium- and low-potential lands that are not only less productive but also more fragile and susceptible to degradation.
Soil is degraded mainly through deforestation, agricultural activities, overgrazing, and overexploitation. Biophysical manifestations include erosion and loss of moisture-holding capacity. But more important, and more complex, are the social and economic aspects. Indeed, some view land degradation as a socioeconomic rather than biophysical problem. For example, population growth increases demand for land on which to grow crops, which often leads to deforestation, shorter fallow periods, and continuous cropping.
Short-sighted economic policies often make the problem worse by encouraging farmers to clear new land for cultivation rather than to protect land already under cultivation. Insecure land tenure arrangements discourage farmers from making long-term investments needed for resource conservation.
The Impacts of trade liberalization: The implementation or reform of agricultural and trade policy creates a complicated set of environmental effects - some negative, some positive, and in some cases linked to food safety issues. The effect of freer agricultural trade on environmental quality depends on a number of factors, such as the mix of post-reform commodities, level of output, changes in production inputs, land use, technical change, and the capacity of the natural resource base to assimilate production impacts.
The additional effect of such changes related to food safety will in many cases relate to the existence of food safety systems and experience related to the new or increase food commodity production. Freer trade improves market access for goods previously governed by quantity restrictions such as quotas and other non-tariff barriers and aligns domestic prices closer to world prices.
Resource reallocation occurs as prices adjust to market conditions and reflect the availability of resources such as arable land, labour, and other farming inputs. As prices change, farmers respond by altering their crop mix and their input use, buying or selling land, and investing in new machinery. In addition, trade and health considerations are intimately connected.